Why Christians Hijacked Pagan Festivals

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    Many of the so-called Christian festivals we celebrate today were originally pagan celebrations marking special times/ days in the yearly cycle of seasons. They were taken over by Christians, or, to be more specific, the Catholic Church, during the latter half of the first millennium AD. Here is why they chose to adapt pagan festivals to suit Christianity.

    First, a few Examples

    Before going into why many pre-Christian celebrations were hijacked by Catholics, let’s take a brief look at some prime examples of such ‘take-overs’.

    Easter – The Spring Equinox has been celebrated by many cultures for thousands of years. Known as Osara by pagans, it was celebrated to mark the arrival of spring (a time of renewal and rebirth) and the land’s renewed fertility. When it was taken over by Christians to mark the crucifixion and resurrection of Christ, some of the ‘old’ traditions were incorporated into the new celebrations.

    Painted eggs, for instance, originated from a thousands-of-years-old Middle Eastern tradition. The ‘Easter bunny’ is actually the product of confusion over eggs in wild hares’ nests (forms) in Europe. Wild hares build forms for their young. Once the young have abandoned the forms, these nests are often taken over by birds (plovers). On finding these birds’ eggs in hares’ forms, locals believed they were left by the hares.

    Halloween – Taken over in the 8th Century as ‘All Hallows Eve’ (the 1st of November being ‘All Hallows, or All Saints Day), Halloween was celebrated by pagans to mark the beginning of winter and the Celtic New Year. Samhain, as it was and still is known today by modern pagans, is also the night when the souls of people who passed away during the year are said to wander among the living. Celebrations were meant to honour the dead and aid them on their journey into the afterlife, or ‘other-world’.

    Christmas – Marking the winter solstice (northern hemisphere), pagan Yule celebrations included clove-spiked oranges and apples in baskets made from evergreen boughs and flour-dusted wheat stalks being carried and offered as gifts to others by children. The interiors and exteriors of homes were decorated with ivy and holly in the hope nature sprites would join the celebrations. Representing the ‘seeds of the Divine’, mistletoe was also used as decoration.

    The tasty Yule logs we have today are a mere shadow of the original ceremonial Yule logs, which had to be harvested from the land of the homeowner or presented as a gift (buying a log was unacceptable). Once the log had been dragged into the fireplace, people would decorate it with seasonal greenery, douse it with ale or cider and dust it with flour before setting it alight using a piece of the previous year’s log. After burning through the night, the log would be allowed to smoulder for 12 days before finally being ceremonially extinguished.

    If at first you don’t succeed..

    Sometimes, adding or changing names did not have the desired effect and additional ‘measures’ had to be taken. Introducing All Saints Day in the 8th Century, for example, was far from successful in removing the deep-rooted ‘travelling dead’ symbolism of Samhain. Honouring some new religion’s saints was, after all, somewhat different from honouring the souls of departed loved ones. To accommodate for this, All Souls Day (2nd of November), a day where people pray for the souls of the dead, was added in the 9th Century.

    Why these Festivals were Hijacked

    As early missionaries travelled around the world to spread the Christian message, their attempts to remove/ subdue deep-rooted native beliefs, traditions and customs met with understandable resistance. In the 6th Century, Pope Gregory I decreed that Catholic missionaries should try to accommodate for native/ pagan customs in order to make Christianity more palatable to natives. Adding new ‘holy days’ or simply renaming special dates in the pagan calendar and incorporating some of the original customs into the way such days were celebrated effectively made it easier for missionaries to convert natives to Christianity.

    Source by Paddy Phillips

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    ~++**Wicca’s Originals – Fox Glasses @ Warehouse Sale**++~

    Categories: Wicca

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    The Metaphysical View of Death and Life After Death Part 10

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    Astral projection is an occult art that was commonly practiced by ancient mystics. Apollonius of Tyana, Yeheshuah (Jesus Christ) and many other mystics often used the ability in their ministry and work. In centuries past and up to this very day, Wicca, or the tradition of witchcraft, teaches its adherents the secrets of astral projection. The superstition that witches rode on broomsticks to their covens actually stems upon the fact that witches were adepts in the art of astral projection and astral travelling. The art of astral projection was kept secret throughout the centuries until the inception and commencement of parapsychological research in the previous century by reputable and eminent scientists. What was once shrouded in mystery and transmitted secretly to initiates, are now being rediscovered or taught openly to the public through the mass media.

    This occurred because early parapsychological findings paved a way for the revelation of such arcane knowledge. People were made ready for the knowledge and power that occultism had to confer. In contemporary times, Carl Jung, the great psychoanalyst, experienced many OBEs and commented on the “absolute objectivity” of his experiences. Other famous persons who had OBEs were among others, St. Augustine, Goethe, Plato, Aristotle, Wordsworth, Alfred Tennyson, and Ernest Hemingway.

    Astral projection, like NDEs, is one of the ways that an individual may prove to him or herself of the truth of the survival of consciousness at the time of transition–that the self, the personal consciousness may function independently of the physical brain and organism. Death is no longer feared, and in a sense, may be said to be “eradicated” once a single astral projection is experienced and apprehended.

    Hypnotic-Regression of the Soul

    Hypnotism has come a long way since the days of Anton Mesmer and his concept of “animal magnetism.” It has passed through many changes of techniques and used for various purposes such as entertainment, self-improvement and healing. Certain principles or tools of psycho-transformation such as affirmation, or “subtle suggestion” are linked to the Mesmeric tradition. In recent years hypnotherapy, or hypnotism used as a therapeutical tool, commenced a new line of probing into the depths of the human psyche. This occurred when certain individuals had spontaneous recollection of their past-lives. If hypnotism could be used to stir and dig up the memory of the present life, could it not also be used to probe deeper into the memory of the psyche to acquire information of a life lived in a past identity or incarnation? This question asked by experts in hypnosis was based on the concept of reincarnation. The underlying premise was that if reincarnation were true, the results of deeper probings into the psyche would offer clues as to its reality. In this section we will not discuss the results of such findings, suffice to say that many case studies of soul-regression into past lives were found to be plausible and later discovered through research to actually be historically-based. What we will consider briefly here are the findings of soul-regression through hypnosis–in the theta-state-pertaining to soul-memory of the transition state and the life beyond the Great Change. This field of study and investigation is just another logical step from the previous probings into past life experiences.

    Our main (and only) source of information concerning this subject is derived from Michael Newton. After investigating the matter for several years along the lines that we have delineated above, he published his findings in the Journey of Souls. One of his main discoveries is that not all souls are of the same spiritual age; that souls may be classified as to their soul-age or evolutionary status. This spiritual principle is actually the origin of the caste system formed in ancient India. Broadly speaking, souls of the same class or spiritual age usually conform to a certain set of experiences during transition and in their “placement” which souls of a higher class usually bypass or do not normally undergo. This corresponds to the general idea of Bardo experiences where one may liberate oneself at any stage, relinquishing the need to experience the following phases–and this usually conforms with soul age and experience. Newton discovered that there was a “homogeneity of experience” among his subjects in the transitional experience, especially when it progressed through further stages.

    Subjects of soul-regression declare that after the initial surprise of being alive during and after transition with its concomitant deathbed visions, a certain white light emerges and attracts their attention. This stage is often accompanied by divine music. From the point of view of Tibetan metaphysics, this white light is none other than the Clear Light of the Void manifesting in the secondary stage of Chikai. Ignorant of what is to be accomplished at this stage, some of the subjects of Newton simply passed on to another stage of the bardo where the judgment or the “tunnel effect” was experienced. Some report of having hovered over the dead body for several days because of confusion, anger or bewilderment. This usually occurs to those who were killed or murdered unexpectedly. We may equate this experience with the latter part of the Chonyid or Sidpa bardo.

    Almost all subjects of deathbed visions describe the “tunnel-effect” where one feels oneself travelling through a long dark tunnel to an uncertain destination represented by a point of light at the distance. This light gets closer and closer as one approaches its source. In occultism, this light is actually the light of the astral realms and should not be confused with the Clear White Light of the Bardo, which is essentially a state of illumination. The tunnel-effect is an experience of the crossing of the veil that separates the physical from the astral regions. It is a “movement” into a different dimension, a birthing into a higher world. After the tunnel effect, and while still being a little disoriented, subjects report on experiencing vibrations of love, comfort and companionship emanating from what they later discovered to be a reception committee comprising of close friends, relatives and their personal, spiritual guide. This “reception committee” Newton found, is always planned well in advance of the soul’s transition by the soul’s personal and spiritual guide to assist it in adjusting to new conditions. Advance souls; however, according to certain case studies, go through the white light experience and the tunnel-effect very quickly. Most of these souls often go straight to their destined realm without undergoing the preliminary stages of meeting with loved ones. Newton believes that these souls do not require the comfort and solace from other beings that young souls usually crave for. After adjusting to the vibratory condition of the astral realm, Newton’s subjects marvel at the remarkable sight awaiting them, and they are usually at a loss for words. Newton comments on this:

    “I enjoy hearing from subjects about the first images of the spirit world. People may see fields of wildflowers, castle towers rising in the distance, or rainbows under an open sky . . .” (1995:24)

    And he continues:

    “Regardless of their state of mind right after death, my subjects are full of exclamations about discovering marvels of the spirit world. Usually, this feeling is combined with euphoria that all their worldly cares have been left behind, especially physical pain.” (1995:25)

    After meeting beloved ones, most souls are brought to special places designed to heal past traumatic experiences. In these healing centers subjects describe themselves as being bathed in swirling light. Those who are seriously damaged in a psychological way, and who possess negative, or evil tendencies, are brought to rehabilitation centers by their guides and secluded for a period of time.

    After the required healing, souls are sent to the realm corresponding to their spiritual attainment. This is described in the Journey of Souls as “placement.” Subjects describe riding on a beam of light, a current of energy, to their destination whether it be in the upper astral or the lower mental. In placements, souls are brought to their spiritual group comprising of individuals of a similar evolutionary status, and they normally do not wander form their group to join other associations. According to Newton’s subjects, in the subtle spheres, the age of the soul manifests in a certain colour or hue in their aura; these souls of a certain evolutionary status (colour) congregate together to form their spiritual group, which is presided or directed by a higher soul functioning as guide and teacher. In these groups discussions take place concerning experiences in the newly-terminated life. The discussions that take place are not unlike the group discussions that occur in a psychotherapeutical meeting where one’s attitudes, motives and feelings for a certain action are analyzed and where one’s behavioral pattern or habit is rationalized by the psychotherapist, or others within the group. The spirit world, as we can see from this, is a time for evaluation, assimilation, and analysis. According to subjects, some of the activities that souls engage in are research and study in libraries or spiritual work undertaken at the direction of their spiritual guides. Similar to the teachings of the Occult Tradition, the case studies of Newton indicates an active life in the higher planes where one may study the various fine arts and sciences or express one’s creativity in the art of mental creation, or alchemical precipitation. In the heavenly worlds a soul must learn how to utilize the mental and psychic faculties effectively in order to accomplish creative works.

    In these fraternal groups of the astral regions, plans are also made for new challenges in the physical world through incarnation. Sometimes agreements are formed between members of these group-minds to incarnate together to carry-out certain tasks or for certain experiences beneficial to soul-growth. For instance, the marriage-made-in-heaven concept is actually formed by souls in the higher worlds who are karmically connected or spiritually related. Choosing a soul-entity to be one’s earth marriage partner is done out of free-will as is the choice to reincarnate–though within the bounds of karma. These chosen partners may or may not come from the same group; however, as it all depends on the lessons that the soul wishes to learn. Before incarnating, these married-couples-to-be formulate certain signs that they would have to look for or to be aware of in the circumstances of their physical plane meeting and in each other to realize the soul-agreement existing between them and that they are, in fact, “soul-mates.”

    These signs are not usually known or remembered on the conscious level. It is triggered into conscious knowing and feeling from the subconscious mind level through the actual manifestation of those signs on the physical plane. Although gender manifests universally in the physical plane, souls are described by Newton’s subjects to be androgynous and manifests in the male or female form in the astral worlds out of preference. Lacking any permanent sexual form, it is thus possible for a soul-entity to embody in the physical world as a male or a female human being.

    In contradistinction to “placement,” some soul-entities are “displaced.” Newton describes them in the following:

    “There are two types of displaced souls: those who do not accept the fact their physical body is dead and fight returning to the spirit world for reasons of personal anguish, and those souls who have been subverted by, or had complicity with, criminal abnormalities in a human body.” (1995:45)

    Indeed, this is an interesting subject, we will therefore discuss this briefly. Paranormal researchers have found that some souls are not aware of their transition. This is usually the result of violent deaths where the permanent atoms are expelled from the physical form simultaneously causing consciousness, or self-awareness to be retained throughout the experience. One of the reasons that makes it so difficult for such souls to accept their condition is that they feel their astral form to be no different from the physical–that, in fact, it feels solid and very much alive. Another reason is that they are unattended and ungreeted by those on the Otherside to give comfort, solace and appropriate information. As a result, these souls become confused, frustrated and “lost.” These souls are trapped in time and space and sustain their entrapment in the physical plane because of their ignorance. In spiritualism, these are called “earthbound spirits.” The motion-picture “Ghost” and many others illustrate this earthbound condition. Only after certain discoveries–at times with the aid of spiritual guides–do these earthbound spirits discover their position and condition. At times the help of guides are rejected thus prolonging the soul’s earthbound condition. Such souls usually bind themselves to a certain geographical location. They often seek contact with three-dimensional physical beings, thus commencing and producing a “haunting” condition.

    They usually live in darkness–their field of vision being murky–they are, therefore, attracted to any coloured illuminations that might appear in their vicinity. Not understanding the nature of these illuminations or lights–which are actually the aura of living beings–they tend to merge or attach themselves with it. They often find themselves trapped in people’s auras. Unknowingly they may reach into such depths as to consider the physical body of their victim as their own and the original tenant as the victimizing spirit. This is technically called “possession,” and causes much needless suffering to both parties involved. Possessions of this non-intentional, non-demonic variety may be exorcised effectively and morally only through helping both possessor and the possessed. In this method, the earthbound soul is given information and advice as to the nature of its plight and the way out to freedom. In this manner both sides involved in the possession are liberated. In this psychological counseling, the earthbound soul is made to realize that it belongs to another dimension; the simple awareness of this truth on the part of the invading spirit is sufficient enough to release it from its bondage and entrapment between worlds. Generally speaking, calls for help–and acceptance of such help, together with a release of desires and attachment to familiar surroundings of the earth plane on the part of the earthbound soul, gradually and automatically raises its vibration and moves it on into the astral world where it may find its placement and once again interact and relate with others of its kind.

    The methods for exorcising demonic possessions are a little different from the above method where the principles of psychology are used to advise the victimizer. The so-called “demons” in such possessions are most often human souls with very negative and violent propensities. Such earthbound spirits are usually attracted to others of similar temperament, idiosyncrasies, habits and desires. They often seek to satiate their own earthly desires through a human channel. These souls are often stubborn, arrogant, and malevolent. Spiritual advise given to them in any way is often ridiculed and rejected. It such cases, assuming a wrathful and authoritative attitude with a definite command directed to them often helps to extirpate these entities. There is a principle that assists in this rite of exorcism–in expelling demonic beings from their human victims that psychic researchers have discovered: these negative beings are intensely afraid of pure radiant light, especially the pure light within the aura of pure and holy persons. Aside from the natural light-radiance of holy beings, in experiments it was discovered that visualized white light was equally effective. This light is visualized by the exorcist surrounding everyone present involved in the exorcism, especially the victim. Evidently, radiant white light causes some pain to these beings with demonic natures. Such luminescence is therefore avoided by them and causes their hasty retreat. When circumstances permit, these negative souls are brought to special places in the astral realm by their spiritual guides for rehabilitation. These places may be thought of as “hell” by its inhabitants. They are not there for eternity, though. They either progress from there to purgatory or incarnate once again in the three-dimensional world. In the end, all earthbound souls must submit to their rightful placement. In should be understood that in most cases of possessions the underlying cause is not by invading entities or malicious thoughtforms but by the assertion or projection of a personality (perhaps from a past life) from the subconscious. In psychiatry this is called schizophrenia.

    Souls are sometimes earthbound because of their attachment to their relatives or friends. There are times when these earthbound souls contact earthlings through a medium. Usually they bring an important message which they feel themselves obliged to pass on to relatives or to certain individuals. This then may be a cause of their earthbound condition, or in other cases, they seek to enlighten humanity concerning life after death. It should be noted here that not all communications through mediums are from disembodied human souls. Some of the communicating beings are in fact elemental spirits, elementary beings, astral shells or even the medium’s own subconscious mind–all mischievously deceiving ignorant humans. But nevertheless, sifting the information derived from communicating spirits through mediums, from the reliable to the questionable, psychic researcher Ernesto Bozzano states the following principles as affirmed by spiritualistic communicators (cf “Life, Death & Consciousness”):

    “1) That all of them found themselves in human form in the spiritual world.

    “2) That for some time, or even for a long period of time, they did not realize they were dead.

    “3) That during the pre-death crisis, or even a little after, they passed through the trial of summarily recalling all the events of their existence (`panoramic vision’ or `epilogue of death’).

    “4) That in the spiritual world they were welcomed by the spirits of their relatives and friends.

    “5) That nearly all of them passed through a more or less lengthy phase of reparatory sleep.

    “6) That they nearly eventually found themselves in a radiant and marvelous spiritual environment (in the case of morally normal deceased), or in a shadowy and oppressive environment (in the case of morally depraved deceased).

    “7) That they had found the spiritual environment to be a new world that was objective, substantial and real, a spiritualized version of the earthly environment. During the separation of the astral from the physical body, it first assumes a cloudy nature which slowly assumes the shape of a physical body.

    “8) That they had learnt that this was due to the fact that thought was a creative force in the spiritual world and thus enabled a spirit living in the astral plane to reproduce around himself the environment of his memories.

    “9) That it had not taken them long to learn that thought transmission was the language of spirits, even though newly arrived spirits delude themselves that they converse by means of words.

    “10) That they had found that the faculty of spiritual vision enabled them to perceive objects simultaneously on all sides, just as they could see inside them and through them.

    “11) That they had discovered that spirits could instantaneously take themselves from one place to another–even when they were very far apart–by virtue of an act of will; nevertheless, they could walk in the spiritual environment or float a short distance above the ground.

    “12) That they had learned that the spirits of the deceased will fatally and automatically gravitate to the spiritual sphere to which they belong, this by virtue of the ‘law of affinity.'”(1991:88)

    Copyright © 2006 Luxamore

    Source by Leonard Lee

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    History of Gift Baskets

    Categories: Wicca

    Although we might think of gift baskets as a modern way to give gifts, gift baskets have actually a rather long legacy. Spanning years and cultures, there are several fascinating stories of gift baskets that have been given throughout history.

    Likely one of the earliest accounts of a gift coming in a basket is the basket of young plants that the pagan goddess Eostre carried in a basket, to be used as a sacred offering. Although some scholars argue the place of Eostre in Easter history, nevertheless this is the likely source of the idea of what came to be the modern-day Easter gift basket.

    Another early gift basket story that had sacred connotations is the Old Testament story of Moses’ mother placing the infant Moses into a wicker basket. She then hid the basket in the reeds on the river’s edge so that the daughter of the Egyptian royal family would find him and eventually take Moses into her custody and protection.

    Baskets have been used not only for gift basket purposes but also for utilitarian reasons for centuries. They were used to carry eggs into the house from the chicken coop, or baskets called trugs were needed to harvest vegetables from the kitchen garden and get them into the home to prepare for meals. Baskets were used as a kind of large saddle bag on horses, donkeys and mules to carry supplies, and even people on occasion.

    Most baskets, including your next gift basket, even today are made by hand. Even with the advent of the Industrial Age, basket making is almost impossible to do using machinery, and instead requires the same hand-crafting that has been used throughout time. Some cultures have turned basket making into an art form. Today you will find many Native American groups who craft special baskets that are used to gather wild huckleberries in the late spring and early summer. Many Native American tribes are famous for their basket-making artistry.

    The care taken with making anything by hand lends a level of special attention to detail that makes gift baskets so lovely to give and receive. Every item that goes into personalized gift baskets can be selected to meet the specific desires of the recipient. As well, the basket can be finished with the favorite colors of your special someone in terms of wrap, ribbon and bows used.

    Gifts in baskets can also be focused around a particular theme, such as a baby gift basket or holiday gift baskets. You can include gift items particular to any event you wish to celebrate, including anniversaries and weddings. Even corporations bestow these baskets to employees or clients, so that they will be remembered in a positive way.

    Source by Anne Harvester

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    Book Review – The Two Babylons by Alexander Hislop, 1916 – A Look at the Roman Catholic Church

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    Hislop’s book dates from 1916 and is a scholarly work which is both factual, as well as opinionated. It chronicles the history of religion with respects to aspects of modern Christianity, which have striking reflections in ancient Egypt, Assyria and Babylon.

    The specific areas that Hislop discusses are the Trinity, the worship of the Mother and Child, Christmas and Easter, Mass, Purgatory and Prayers for the Dead, Idol worship and processions, Relic worship, The Rosary, The Sign of the Cross, The Sovereign Pontiff or Pope, as well as the Roman Catholic offices of priests and nuns. He also endeavors to draw a striking parallel between the “whore” of Revelation, as it is referred to in older Bibles, or Babylon the Great, whom he identifies as the Roman Catholic Church. Hislop was a Protestant minister, and the work was published in the U.S. by Loizeaux Brothers, who are described as “A non-profit Organization, Devoted to the Lord’s Work and to the Spread of His Truth.

    The book is illustrated, and it helps the reader to gain insight to ancient forms of pagan worship, and how the do indeed seemed to have influenced modern day Christianity. Christianity started out as a continuation or breakoff, depending on one’s point of view, from the ancient Jewish religion. That religion was a strictly monotheistic religion centered on the worship of the Supreme God, Yahweh, or in modern vernacular, Jehovah. Idolatry was strictly forbidden, and any mingling with paganism or other religions was considered an apostate offense, punishable by death, in the Hebrew Scriptures, commonly referred to as The Old Testament. Of course, the ancient Jews frequently did mingle in both their association and in their worship, and much of the Hebrew Scriptures devotes itself to righting that wrong.

    Similarly with the history of Christianity, much of the monotheistic religion of the first century Christian Church, gradually became influenced by paganism, so that pagan teachings such as The Trinity, the use of the Rosary in prayer, idolatry and the use of images, as well as an ecclesiastical system of power which led up to a Supreme Pontiff, became a major part of the religion of the Roman Catholic Church. Many of the teachings of the corrupted Roman Catholic Church, were carried on with the Protestant Churches as well.

    Some feel that Hislop’s book is overdone in trying to find parallels between Christian tradition and paganism, other’s feel that Hislop does make a good case for offering proof of the modern meld of Christian teaching, mixed with pagan trappings. Christmas for sure, is of pagan origin, as is Easter, a festival dedicated to the more or less well known pagan goddess of fertility (sex goddess) Ashtarte. (The Greek Scriptures, or New Testament, has no reference to the holiday/tradition of Easter. Only the commemoration of the death of Christ was celebrated, but not the resurrection).

    In any case, while few would selectively limit the Roman Catholic Church as being the only part of Babylon the Great mentioned in Revelation 17 and 18, some do feel that the basic idea behind Hislop’s parallel approach is worth consideration and has some validity.

    It is a well written piece of what might be described as “classic” Christian literature, that is still discussed in a controversial setting, today, close to one-hundred years later.

    Source by John W. Scott

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    Abundantia, Goddess of Prosperity and Good Fortune

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    Abundantia (abundance) is a Roman Goddess, personification of abundance, prosperity and good fortune. She is loosely modeled after Demeter, and bares a resemblance with Copia, Annona and other goddesses of wealth, harvest and prosperity. Her name can be written Habundia, Abundia, Habonde, Abonde or Habundie.

    Her attributes are the cornucopia, a golden sheath of grain or palm leaf. She is quite often shown in Roman coins, holding a cornucopia, indicating the generosity of the emperor and at the same time blessing the empire.

    She evolved into Domina Abundia, a fairy queen of France. As fairy queen, she is known as Old Dame Habonde, Notre Dame d’Abondance, Wandering Dame Abonde, Queen of the White Ladies; misty spirits, vilies (wilis, veelas), sylphs and banshees. “Roman de la Rose”, a medieval novel, tells that every third born child was to travel with Abonde three times. Only their souls would travel, their physical bodies would be at home, as if dead, and they would be misty and incorporeal. Abonde was told to lead nocturnal hordes of Ladies through houses and farms, eating and drinking all they could find. If one left them food and drink, Abonde was to bless the household with prosperity. If not, the white ladies would destroy the crop, break into the storage rooms and vandalize the property. This ride, also called Wild Hunt, took place during Midwinter. It has been attributed to Herne, Odin, Valkyries, Mother Holle and several other Dark Deities as well as to Abundantia.

    It is interesting that even though she seems to be very popular, beloved and important Goddess, not much is known about her. Some people say that she is the same Goddess as Perchta (Percht, Bertha), some say she is the Scandinavian Fulla (Volla, Vol), yet some others say that she is another form of Demeter/Ceres. She has been compared to Erda (Eartha, Jord), Frau Holle (Holda), Nichneven (Nichen) and all the other hags of European pantheon. As Fulla she has golden hair and eyes blue like cornflower, and she is beautiful and young. As Frau Holle she is an old, old crone, who tests you by giving you different tasks.

    In all her aspects she will punish the wicked and reward the kind. She likes the mild, hardworking, generous people, who share what is theirs and help the helpless. Especially important to her is how you treat animals and the weak of the society; the old, the poor and the sick. She also is very strict about rest and respecting the holidays. All these are Virgo qualities. Abundantia is the Heavenly Virgin.

    Hans Christian Andersen and Brothers Grimm use Frau Holle in her different aspects in their fairytales. In Frau Holle, the good girl is to go and serve her for a year and as she is a kind, friendly, respectful and hard-working girl, who does all the chores put on her well and without complaining, she is rewarded with that ever word she says turns into golden coin. Her stepsister, a lazy, whiny, unfriendly, proud girl, who is not satisfied with anything, comes home speaking frogs and covered with tar. The girl with red shoes steps on the bread and is dragged into the swamp to serve her and to learn humility and respect food.

    Abundia is most likely a moon goddess, not an earth goddess. Her abundance rains on earth, as rain of gold coins that covered the young girl, who gave away her clothes to a poor woman, trusting that no-one would see her in the darkness, rain of tar that covered the nasty stepsister or snow which is said to be feathers from her pillows and duvets.

    Source by Ketutar Jensen

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