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Scientists identify 20 alien worlds most likely to be like Earth | Fox News

Samantha Jade performs at Bondi Beach

 

Artist’s illustration of the alien planet Kepler-186f, which orbits in the habitable zone of a red dwarf star. (NASA Ames/SETI Institute/JPL-CalTech)

Astronomers are narrowing the field in their search for a “second Earth.”

An international team of researchers has identified the 20 most Earth-like worlds among the more than 4,000 exoplanet candidates that NASA’s Kepler space telescope has detected to date, scientists report in a new study.

All 20 potential “second Earths” lie within the habitable zones of their sun-like stars meaning they should be able to harbor liquid water on their surfaces and are likely rocky, the researchers said. [The Search for Another Earth (Video)]

Identifying these Earth-like planets is important in the hunt for alien life, said study lead author Stephen Kane, an associate professor of physics and astronomy at San Francisco State University (SFSU).

More From Space.com

Gallery: A World of Kepler Planets

Read more: www.foxnews.com/

The post Scientists identify 20 alien worlds most likely to be like Earth | Fox News appeared first on AlienVirals.com – Latest Alien & UFO News.

www.alienvirals.com/scientists-identify-20-alien-worlds-m…

Posted by alienvirals on 2017-05-06 18:51:40

Tagged:

Rome Revealed Giancarlo Gasponi (1981)

Samantha Jade performs at Bondi Beach

Image was taken in Rome in 1980/1981 by photographer Giancarlo Gasponi

A Look Back At The Year 1980!

January
2 January – Workers at British Steel Corporation go on a nationwide strike over pay called by the Iron and Steel Trades Confederation, which has some 90,000 members among British Steel’s 150,000 workforces, in a bid to get a 20% rise. It is the first steelworks strike since 1926.[1]
19 January – The first UK Indie Chart is published in Record Week.
20 January – The British record TV audience for a film is set when some 23,500,000 viewers tune in for the ITV showing of the James Bond film Live and Let Die (1973).
21 January – MS Athina B is beached at Brighton.
28 January – Granada Television airs a controversial edition of World in Action on ITV, in which it alleges that Manchester United F.C. chairman Louis Edwards has made unauthorised payments to the parents of some of the club’s younger players and has made shady deals to win local council meat contracts for his retail outlet chain.[2]
February[edit]
14 February – Margaret Thatcher announces that state benefit to strikers will be halved.
14 – 23 February – Great Britain and Northern Ireland compete at the Winter Olympics in Lake Placid, New York, United States, and win one gold medal (Robin Cousins for figure skating).
17 February – British Steel Corporation announces that more than 11,000 jobs will be axed at its plants in Wales by the end of next month.
25 February
The first episode of the popular political television sitcom Yes Minister broadcast by the BBC.
Manchester United chairman Louis Edwards dies from a heart attack at the age of 65, just weeks after allegations about his dealings with Manchester United and his retail outlet chain.
March[edit]
10 March – An opinion poll conducted by the Evening Standard suggests that six out of 10 Britons are dissatisfied with Margaret Thatcher’s Conservative government, who now trail Labour (still led by James Callaghan, the former prime minister) in the opinion polls.[3]
19–20 March – Radio Caroline, the pirate radio station, is forced to cease transmission when MV Mi Amigo, the ship on which it is based, runs aground and sinks off the Thames Estuary.[4]
25 March
The British Olympic Association votes to defy the government by sending athletes to the Olympic Games to be held in Moscow, USSR in the summer.[5]
Robert Runcie enthroned as Archbishop of Canterbury.[4]
26 March – The budget raises tax allowances and duties on petrol, alcohol and tobacco.
31 March
British Leyland agrees to sell the MG cars factory at Abingdon to a consortium headed by Aston Martin-Lagonda when the plant closes this autumn.
National Heritage Act sets up the National Heritage Memorial Fund.
Vauxhall, the British division of General Motors, launches the Astra, a front-wheel-drive hatchback which replaces the recently discontinued Viva and is based on the latest Opel Kadett. Although the car is currently produced in West Germany and Belgium, there are plans for British production to commence at the Ellesmere Port plant in Cheshire next year.
April[edit]
1 April – The steelworkers’ strike is called off.
4 April – Alton Towers Resort is opened by Madame Tussauds in Staffordshire.
10 April – The UK reaches an agreement with Spain to re-open its border with Gibraltar.
18 April – Zimbabwe becomes independent of the United Kingdom.[4]
22 April – Unemployment stands at a two-year high of more than 1.5million.
30 April – The Iranian Embassy Siege begins. A six-man terrorist team calling itself the “Democratic Revolutionary Movement for the Liberation of Arabistan” (DRMLA) captures the Embassy of Iran in Prince’s Gate, Knightsbridge, central London, taking 26 hostages.[4]
May[edit]
1 May – British Aerospace privatised.[6]
3 May – Liverpool win the Football League First Division title for 12th time.[7]
5 May – The SAS storm the Iranian Embassy building, kill 5 out of the 6 terrorists and free all the hostages.[8]
10 May – West Ham United, of the Second Division, wins the FA Cup for the third time in its history with a surprise 1–0 victory over First Division Arsenal in the final at Wembley Stadium. Trevor Brooking scores the only goal of the game to make West Ham United the third team from the Second Division to have won the trophy in the last eight years. As of 2018, West Ham are the last team from outside the top division to have won the FA Cup.[9]
16 May – Inflation has risen to 21.8%.
27 May – Inquest into the death of New Zealand born teacher Blair Peach (who was killed during a demonstration against the National Front last year) returns a verdict of misadventure, resulting in a public outcry.[9]
28 May – Nottingham Forest retain the European Cup with a 1–0 win over Hamburger SV, the West German league champions, in Madrid. The winning goal is scored by Scotland international John Robertson. The European Cup has now been won by an English club for the fourth successive year, as Liverpool won it for two consecutive years before Forest’s first victory last year.
June[edit]
June
British Leyland launches its Morris Ital range of family saloons and estates, which are a reworking of the nine-year-old Marina that was one of Britain’s most popular cars during the 1970s. Production is expected to finish by 1984 when an all-new front-wheel-drive model is added to the range, and sales begin on 1 August – the same day that the new W-registered cars go on sale.
The UK economy slides into recession.
6 June – Two Malaysian men are jailed for 14 years after being found guilty of running a drug-smuggling ring in London which generated millions of pounds.
12 June – Gail Kinchen (a pregnant 16-year-old) and her unborn baby are accidentally shot dead by a police marksman who entered the Birmingham flat where her boyfriend David Pagett is holding her hostage at gunpoint.[10] [11]
17 June – Secretary of State for Defence, Francis Pym reveals to the House of Commons that US nuclear cruise missiles would be located at RAF Greenham Common in Berkshire and the disused RAF Molesworth base in Cambridgeshire.[10]
19 June – Gunmen attack the British embassy in Iraq; three unknown attackers are shot dead by Iraqi security forces.[11]
24 June – Unemployment is announced to have reached a postwar high of 1,600,000.
26 June – The Glasgow Central by-election is held, with Labour retaining its hold on the seat despite a swing of 14% to the Scottish National Party.
30 June – The pre-decimal sixpence coin is withdrawn from circulation.[4]
July[edit]
1 July – MG’s Abingdon car factory looks set to close completely this autumn as Aston Martin fails to raise the funds to buy it from British Leyland.
8 July – Miners threatening to strike demand a 37% pay increase, ignoring pleas from Margaret Thatcher to hold down wage claims.
10 July – Alexandra Palace in London gutted by fire.[12]
19 July – 3 August: Great Britain and Northern Ireland compete at the Olympics in Moscow and win 5 gold, 7 silver and 9 bronze medals.
22 July – Unemployment has hit a 44-year high of nearly 1.9 million.
29 July – Margaret Thatcher announces the introduction of Enterprise Zones as an employment relief effort in some of the regions of Britain which have been hardest hit by deindustrialisation and unemployment.[12]
August[edit]
11 August
Margaret Thatcher visits the Harold Hill area of East London to hand off the keys to the 12,000th council tenants in Britain to buy their home under the right to buy scheme. However, she is met by jeering from neighbours of the family.
Tyne and Wear Metro opens on Tyneside after 6 years construction, with the first phase between Haymarket in Newcastle and Whitley Bay
16 August – 37 people die as a result of the Denmark Place fire, arson at adjacent London nightclubs.[13]
28 August – Unemployment now stands at 2million for the first time since 1935. Economists warn that it could rise to up to 2.5million by the end of next year.[14]
September[edit]
1 September – Ford launches one of the most important new cars of the year – the mark 3 Escort, which is a technological innovation in the small family car market, spelling the end of the traditional rear-wheel-drive saloon in favour of the front-wheel-drive hatchback, and following a trend in this sector of car which is being repeated all over Western Europe. An estate version is also available.
9 September – Bibby Line’s Liverpool-registered ore-bulk-oil carrier MV Derbyshire sinks with the loss of all 44 crew south off Japan in Typhoon Orchid following structural failure. At 91,655 gross tons, she is the largest UK-registered ship ever lost.
11 September – The Marlborough diamond is stolen in London.[15]
12 September
Consett Steelworks in Consett, County Durham closes with the loss of 4500 jobs, instantly making it the town with the highest rate of unemployment in the UK.
Marlborough diamond thieves Joseph Scalise and Arthur Rachel are arrested in Chicago after getting off a British Airways flight in the city. However, the stolen diamond has not been found.[13]
13 September – Hercules, a bear which had gone missing on a Scottish island filming a Kleenex advertisement, is found.[16]
21 September – First CND rally at RAF Greenham Common.[6]
24 September – 34-year-old Singapore born doctor Upadhya Bandara is attacked and injured in Headingley, Leeds; the Yorkshire Ripper is believed to have been responsible.[17]
October[edit]
3 October – The 1980 Housing Act comes into effect, giving council house tenants of three years’ standing in England and Wales the right to buy their home from their local council at a discount.[18]
6 October – Deregulation of express coach services.
8 October – British Leyland launches the Austin Metro, a small three-door hatchback which makes use of the much of the Mini’s drivetrain and suspension, including its 998cc and 1275cc engines. The Mini will continue to be produced alongside the Metro at Longbridge in Birmingham, which was recently expanded to accommodate Metro production.
10 October – Margaret Thatcher makes her “The lady’s not for turning” speech to the Conservative Party conference after-party MP’s warn that her economic policy was responsible for the current recession and rising unemployment.[19]
15 October
James Callaghan, ousted as Prime Minister by the Conservative victory 17 months ago, resigns as Labour Party leader after four and a half years.
Former Prime Minister Harold Macmillan, 86, criticises Margaret Thatcher’s economic policies, claiming that she has “got the wrong answer” to the economic crises which she inherited from Labour last year. Her economic policies are also criticised by union leaders, who blame her policies for rising unemployment and bankruptcies, and warn that this could result in civil unrest.[20]
17 October – Elizabeth II makes history by becoming the first British monarch to make a state visit to the Vatican.[21]
22 October – Lord Thomson announces that The Times and Sunday Times will be closed down within five months unless a buyer is found.
24 October – MG car production ends after 56 years with the closure of the plant in Abingdon, Oxfordshire, where more than 1.1million MG cars have been built since it opened in 1924.[22]
28 October – Margaret Thatcher declares that the government will not give in to seven jailed IRA terrorists who are on hunger strike in the Maze Prison in hope of winning prisoner of war status.
November[edit]
5 November – Theresa Sykes, a 16-year-old Huddersfield mother of a young baby, is wounded in a stabbing near her home in the town. The Yorkshire Ripper is believed to be responsible.[23]
10 November – Michael Foot is elected Leader of the Labour Party.[24]
13 November – George Smith, a security guard, is shot dead when the van he is guarding is intercepted by armed robbers in Willenhall, West Midlands.[14] [15]
17 November – University student Jacqueline Hill, aged 20, is murdered in Headingley, Leeds.
19 November – Police investigating the murder of Jacqueline Hill establish that she was probably the 13th woman to be killed by the Yorkshire Ripper.[25]
23 November – Despite the economy now being in recession and the government’s monetarist economic policy to tackle inflation being blamed for the downturn, the government announces further public spending cuts and taxation rises.
December[edit]
8 December – John Lennon is shot dead in New York.[26]
10 December – Frederick Sanger wins his second Nobel Prize in Chemistry, jointly with Walter Gilbert, “for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids”.[27]
14 December – Thousands of music fans hold a 10-minute vigil in Liverpool for John Lennon.
18 December – Michael Foot’s hopes of becoming prime minister in the next general election are given a boost by a MORI poll which shows Labour on 56% with a 24-point lead over the Conservatives.[28]
23 December – American animated special Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer airs for the last ever time on ITV.
26 & 28 December – Sightings of unexplained lights near RAF Woodbridge Suffolk, which become known as the Rendlesham Forest incident, the most well-known claimed UFO event in Britain.[29]
28 December – The Independent Broadcasting Authority award contracts for commercial broadcasting on ITV. TV-am is awarded the first-ever breakfast TV contract and is set to go on air by 1983.[30]
Undated[edit]
Inflation has risen to 18% as Margaret Thatcher’s battle against inflation is still in its early stages.[31]
The economy contracts throughout the year, shrinking by 4% overall with the greatest decline occurring in the second quarter of the year at 1.8%.[16]
Insider trading in shares becomes illegal under United Kingdom company law.
Britain becomes self-sufficient in oil.[32]
Alton Towers begins development as a theme park.
Transcendental Meditation movement community established in Skelmersdale.
Publications[edit]
Douglas Adams’ novel The Restaurant at the End of the Universe, second of The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy “trilogy”.
Julian Barnes’ first novel Metroland.
Anthony Burgess’s novel Earthly Powers.
The Church of England’s Alternative Service Book.
William Golding’s novel Rites of Passage, first of the To the Ends of the Earth trilogy.
David Lodge’s novel How Far Can You Go?.
Iris Murdoch’s novel Nuns and Soldiers.
Barry Unsworth’s novel Pascali’s Island.
Benjamin Zephaniah’s first poetry collection Pen Rhythm.
Births[edit]
1 January – Richie Faulkner, rock guitarist (Judas Priest)
20 January – Jenson Button, racing driver
5 February – Jo Swinson, Scottish politician, leader of the Liberal Democrats (UK)
10 February
Ralf Little, footballer and actor
Steve Tully, footballer
13 March – Linda Clement, Scottish field hockey player
23 March – Russell Howard, English comedian and television and radio presenter
28 March – Angela Rayner, Labour politician
29 March – Andy Scott-Lee, Welsh singer (3SL) & Pop Idol (series 2) contestant
8 April
Ben Freeman, actor
Cheryl Valentine, Scottish field hockey midfielder
8 May – Michelle McManus, Scottish singer, winner of Pop Idol (series 2) and television host
9 May – Kate Richardson-Walsh, English field hockey player
30 May – Steven Gerrard, footballer

Khalid Abdalla
1 June
Martin Devaney, footballer
Oliver James, actor
2 June – Richard Skuse, rugby player
4 June – Philip Olivier, actor
10 June – Jovanka Houska, chess master
23 June – Jessica Taylor, singer (Liberty X)
29 June – Katherine Jenkins, mezzo-soprano
18 July – Tasmin Lucia-Khan, television news presenter
28 July – Leo Houlding, English rock climber
19 August – Adam Campbell, actor
23 August – Joanne Froggatt, English actress of stage
12 September – Kevin Sinfield, English rugby league player
14 October – Ben Whishaw, actor
26 October – Khalid Abdalla, Scottish-born actor
28 October – Alan Smith, footballer
12 November – Charlie Hodgson, English rugby union player
19 November – Adele Silva, actress
6 December – Steve Lovell, footballer
7 December – John Terry, footballer
20 December – Ashley Cole, footballer
25 December – Laura Sadler, television actress (died 2003)
Deaths[edit]
11 January – Barbara Pym, novelist (born 1913)
18 January – Sir Cecil Beaton, photographer (born 1904)
4 February – Edith Summerskill, physician, feminist, Labour politician and campaigner (born 1901)
17 February – Graham Sutherland, artist (born 1903)
1 March – Dixie Dean, football player (born 1907)
7 March – John Illingworth, yachtsman, yacht designer and naval officer (born 1903)
18 March – Ludwig Guttmann, neurologist and pioneer of paralympic games (born 1899 in Germany)
29 April – Alfred Hitchcock, film director (born 1899)
14 May – Hugh Griffith, actor (born 1912)
18 May – Ian Curtis, post-punk musician and singer (Joy Division) (born 1956)
7 June – Elizabeth Craig, writer (born 1883)
12 June – Billy Butlin, founder of Butlins holiday camps (born 1899 in South Africa)
23 June – John Laurie, actor (born 1897)
1 July – C. P. Snow, novelist and physicist (born 1905)
24 July – Peter Sellers, comic actor (born 1925)
26 July – Kenneth Tynan, theatre critic (born 1927)
24 August – Yootha Joyce, actress (born 1927)
September – Adrian Bell, farmer and writer (born 1901)
25 September – John Bonham, drummer (Led Zeppelin) (born 1948)
6 October – Hattie Jacques, comic actress (heart attack) (born 1922)
4 November – Johnny Owen, boxer (born 1956)
8 November – Valerie Myerscough, mathematician and astrophysicist (born 1942)
22 November – Norah McGuinness, painter and illustrator (born 1901)
26 November – Rachel Roberts, actress (suicide) (born 1927)
3 December – Oswald Mosley, leader of the British Union of Fascists (born 1896)
8 December
John Lennon, pop singer-songwriter and guitarist (The Beatles) (murdered in the United States) (born 1940)
Charles Parker, radio documentary producer (born 1919)

Chart date
(week ending)song artist(s)
5 January”Another Brick in the Wall”Pink Floyd
12 January
19 January”Brass in Pocket”The Pretenders
26 January
2 February Special AKA Live!The Specials
9 February
16 February”Coward of the County”Kenny Rogers
23 February
1 March”Atomic” Blondie
8 March
15 March”Together We Are Beautiful”Fern Kinney
22 March”Going Underground / Dreams of Children”The Jam
29 March
5 April
12 April”Working My Way Back to You”The Detroit Spinners
19 April
26 April”Call Me”Blondie
3 May”Geno” Dexys Midnight Runners
10 May
17 May”What’s Another Year”Johnny Logan
24 May
31 May” Suicide Is Painless (Theme from M*A*S*H)”Johnny Mandel
7 June
14 June
21 June”Crying” Don McLean
28 June
5 July
12 July”Xanadu” Olivia Newton-John/Electric Light Orchestra
19 July
26 July”Use It Up and Wear It Out”Odyssey
2 August
9 August”The Winner Takes It All”ABBA
16 August
23 August”Ashes to Ashes”David Bowie
30 August
6 September”Start!”The Jam
13 September”Feels Like I’m in Love”Kelly Marie
20 September
27 September”Don’t Stand So Close to Me”The Police
4 October
11 October
18 October
25 October”Woman in Love”Barbra Streisand
1 November
8 November
15 November”The Tide Is High”Blondie
22 November
29 November”Super Trouper” ABBA
6 December
13 December
20 December”(Just Like) Starting Over”John Lennon
27 December”There’s No-one Quite Like Grandma” St. Winifred’s School Choir

Posted by UK & Beyond on 2014-05-11 20:28:22

Tagged: , Rome, Roma, Giancarlo Gasponi, 1981, Images, Italy, Italia, Travel, Tourism, BREXIT, Remain In Europe, VOTE REMAIN IN, Trump, Clinton, Boris Johnson, Clinton Win, Clinton Victory, Russian Hacking Trump Victory

Partridge Peartree

Samantha Jade performs at Bondi Beach

 

 

 

Take A Look Back At The Year 1977

January
January–June – The United Kingdom holds the Presidency of the Council of the European Union for the first time.
January – The Ford Fiesta goes on sale in the UK.
3 January – Roy Jenkins, the Home Secretary, announces he is leaving the House of Commons to become President of the European Commission.[1]
6 January – After releasing only one single for the controversial punk rock band the Sex Pistols, EMI terminates its contract with them in response to its members’ disruptive behavior last month on ITV’s Today and two days ago at London Heathrow Airport.[2] Their next contract (in March) with a record company lasts for 2 weeks.
10 January – Clive Sinclair introduces his new two-inch screen television set, which retails at £175.
29 January – Seven Provisional Irish Republican Army bombs explode in the West End of London, but there are no fatalities or serious injuries.
February[edit]
4 February
Fleetwood Mac’s Grammy-winning album Rumours is released, featuring songs that include “The Chain”, “Don’t Stop”, and “Go Your Own Way”.
Police discover an IRA bomb factory in Liverpool.
5 February – Twenty-eight-year-old homeless woman Irene Richardson is murdered in Leeds, at almost the exact location where prostitute Marcella Claxton was badly injured nine months earlier. Police believe that this murder and attempted murder may be connected, along with the murders of Wilma McCann, Emily Jackson and the attempted murders of at least three other women.[3]
10 February
Elizabeth II visits American Samoa.
The three IRA terrorists involved in the 1975 Balcombe Street Siege in London are sentenced to life imprisonment on six charges of murder.
11 February – Queen Elizabeth II visits Western Samoa.
13 February – Anthony Crosland, Foreign Secretary, suffers a massive stroke, from which he will not regain consciousness. He dies six days later in hospital.
14 February – Elizabeth II visits Tonga.
15 February – The first Aardman Animations character, Morph, is introduced on BBC children’s television program Take Hart.
16–17 February – Elizabeth II visits Fiji.
17 February – George Newman, chairman of Staffordshire County Council, is sentenced to fifteen months in prison for corruption.[4]
22 February – David Owen, 38, becomes the youngest post-Second World War Foreign Secretary, succeeding the late Anthony Crosland, who died three days earlier.
22 February–7 March – Elizabeth II visits New Zealand.
28 February – State opening of the Parliament of New Zealand, by Elizabeth II.
March[edit]
1 March – James Callaghan threatens to withdraw state assistance to British Leyland unless it puts an end to strikes.
7–30 March – Elizabeth II visits Australia.
8 March – State opening of the Australian Parliament, Canberra by Elizabeth II.
12 March – The Centenary Test between Australia and England begins at the Melbourne Cricket Ground.
14 March – The government reveals that inflation has pushed prices up by nearly 70% within three years.
15 March – British Leyland managers announce intention to dismiss 40,000 toolmakers who have gone on strike at the company’s Longbridge plant in Birmingham, action which is costing the state-owned carmaker more than £10,000,000 a week.[4]
17–23 March – The Prince of Wales visits Ghana.
19 March – The last Rover P6 rolls off the production line after fourteen years.
23 March – The government wins a vote of no confidence in the House of Commons after James Callaghan strikes a deal with the leader of the Liberal Party, David Steel.[5]
23–25 March – Elizabeth II visits Papua New Guinea.
29 March – Income tax is slashed to 33p in the pound from 35p in the budget.
31 March – Elizabeth II visits Muscat.
April[edit]
April – Mike Leigh’s comedy of manners Abigail’s Party opens at the Hampstead Theatre, starring Alison Steadman.
2 April – Red Rum wins the Grand National for the third time.[6]
8 April – Punk band The Clash’s debut album The Clash is released in the UK through CBS Records.
11 April – London Transport’s Silver Jubilee AEC Routemaster buses are launched.
18–30 April – The Embassy World Snooker Championship moves to the Crucible Theatre, Sheffield, and attracts television coverage for the first time.
23 April
National Front marchers clash with anti-Nazi protesters in London.
Prostitute Patricia Atkinson is murdered in Bradford; she is believed to be the fourth woman to die at the hands of the mysterious Yorkshire Ripper.[7]
29 April – British Aerospace is formed, to run the nationalized aviation industry.
30 April – Mid-Hants Railway reopens as a heritage line.
May[edit]
3 May – Light aircraft carrier HMS Invincible is launched at Barrow-in-Furness by Elizabeth II.
5 May
Silver Jubilee Review of the Police at Hendon by Elizabeth II.
Conservatives make gains at local council elections, including winning the Greater London Council from Labour.
7 May
The 3rd G7 summit is held in London.
Prime Minister of Canada Pierre Elliot Trudeau does a pirouette behind the back of Elizabeth II.
The 22nd Eurovision Song Contest is held in London. With Angela Rippon as the presenter, the contest is won by Marie Myriam representing France, with her song “L’oiseau et L’Enfant” (“The Bird and the Child”); the British entry, Lynsey de Paul and Michael Moran’s “Rock Bottom”, takes second place.
10 May – Dounreay nuclear power plant experiences an explosion caused by potassium and sodium.
13 May – The Silver Jubilee Air Fair is held at Biggin Hill.
15 May – Liverpool F.C. are English league champions for the tenth time.
17 May – Elizabeth II commences her Jubilee tour in Glasgow.
18 May
The UK is among 29 signatories of a Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques.[8]
Elizabeth II visits Cumbernauld and Stirling.
19 May – Elizabeth II visits Perth and Dundee.
21 May – Manchester United win the FA Cup for the fourth time by defeating Liverpool 2–1 at Wembley Stadium in the cup final. It is their first major trophy since they won the European Cup in 1968.[9]
23–27 May – Elizabeth II visits Edinburgh.
25 May – Liverpool F.C. wins their first European Cup by defeating the West German league champions Borussia Mönchengladbach 3–1 in the final in Rome.[10]
27 May
Elizabeth II opens the new Air Terminal Building at Edinburgh Airport.
Prime Minister James Callaghan officially opens the M5 motorway, now complete with the finishing off the final stretch around Exeter, fifteen years after the first stretch (beginning near Birmingham) was opened.[11]
28 May – Climax of Windsor Silver Jubilee celebrations: Elizabeth II visits the town on her Jubilee tour.
30 May – A gala performance for the Silver Jubilee is held at the Royal Opera House, London.
June[edit]
6–9 June – Silver Jubilee celebrations are held in the United Kingdom to celebrate twenty-five years of Queen Elizabeth II’s reign, with a public holiday on 7 June.[12]
17 June – Wimbledon F.C., champions of the Isthmian League, are elected to the Football League in place of Workington in the Fourth Division.[13]
20 June
Anglia Television broadcasts the fake documentary Alternative 3; it enters into the conspiracy theory canon.
Seventeen people are arrested during clashes between pickets and police at the Grunwick film processing laboratory.
26 June – 16-year-old shop assistant Jayne McDonald, is found battered and stabbed to death in Chapeltown, Leeds; police believe she is the fifth person to be murdered by the Yorkshire Ripper.[14]
July[edit]
4 July – Manchester United F.C. manager Tommy Docherty is sensationally dismissed by the club’s directors due to his affair with the wife of the club’s physiotherapist.[15]
7 July – The first episode of the BBC documentary series Brass Tacks is aired, featuring a debate about whether Myra Hindley should be considered for parole from the life sentence she received for her role in the Moors Murders in 1966.
10 July – Bradford woman Maureen Long, 42, is injured in an attack believed to have been committed by the Yorkshire Ripper in the West Yorkshire city.[16]
11 July
Gay News found guilty of blasphemous libel in a case (Whitehouse v. Lemon) brought on behalf of Mary Whitehouse’s National Viewers and Listeners Association.[17]
Don Revie announces his resignation after three years as manager of the England national football team.[18]
12 July – Within 24 hours of resigning as manager of the England national football team, Don Revie accepts an offer to become the highest-paid football manager in the world when he is appointed a manager of the United Arab Emirates national football team on a four-year contract worth £340,000.
14 July – Manchester United appoint Dave Sexton, manager of Queen’s Park Rangers and previously Chelsea, as their new manager.[19]
23 July – Chrysler Europe launched the Sunbeam, a three-door rear-wheel drive small hatchback similar in concept to the Ford Fiesta and Vauxhall Chevette.[20]
29 July – Finance Act abolishes the collection of tithes.[21]
August[edit]
August – The government introduces voluntary Stage III one-year pay restraint.
10 August
The Queen visits Northern Ireland as part of her Jubilee celebrations under tight security.[22]
Kenny Dalglish, the 26-year-old Scotland striker, becomes Britain’s most expensive footballer in a £440,000 transfer from Celtic to Liverpool.[23]
11 August – Cricketer Geoff Boycott scores the 100th century of his career for England against Australia at Headingley, Leeds.
12 August–19 September – Union-Castle Line RMS Windsor Castle (1959) makes the line’s last passenger mail voyage out of Southampton for Cape Town, the last major British ship to operate in the regular ocean liner trade.
13 August – Battle of Lewisham: an attempt by the far-right National Front to march from New Cross to Lewisham in southeast London leads to counter-demonstrations and violent clashes.[24]
15 August – Rioting breaks out in Birmingham during demonstrations against the National Front.
17 August – Ron Greenwood, general manager of West Ham United, who guided the East London club to FA Cup and European Cup Winners’ Cup glory as their team manager during the 1960s, accepts an offer from the Football Association to manage the England team on a temporary basis until December.[25]
23 August – A new, smaller, £1 note is introduced.
26 August – First all-Luton-built Vauxhall Cavalier Mk1 family cars roll off the production line at Vauxhall Motors Luton factory.
September[edit]
September – Ford launches the second generation of its flagship Granada saloon and estate models.
6 September – Car industry figures show that foreign cars are outselling British-built ones for the first time. Japanese built Datsuns, German Volkswagens and French Renaults are proving particularly popular with buyers, although British-built products from Ford, British Leyland, Vauxhall, and Chrysler UK are still the most popular.
16 September – Rock star Marc Bolan, pioneer of the glam rock movement at the start of the 1970s with T. Rex, is killed in a car crash in Barnes, London, two weeks before his thirtieth birthday. His girlfriend Gloria Jones, who was driving the car, is seriously injured.
19 September – Manchester United, the English FA Cup holders, are expelled from the European Cup Winners’ Cup after their fans rioted in France during a first-round first leg game with AS Saint-Etienne (which ended in a 1–1 draw) five days ago.[26]
26 September
Freddie Laker launches his new budget Skytrain airline, with the first single fare from Gatwick to New York City costing £59 compared to the normal price of £186.
UEFA reinstates Manchester United to the European Cup Winners’ Cup on appeal. However, they are ordered to play their return leg against AS Saint-Etienne at least 120 miles away from their Old Trafford stadium.[27]
October[edit]
3 October – Undertakers go on strike in London, leaving more than 800 corpses unburied.
7 October – Rock band Queen’s power ballad “We Are the Champions” is released.
10 October – Missing 20-year-old prostitute Jean Jordan is found dead in Chorlton, Manchester, nine days after she was last seen alive. Police believe that the “Yorkshire Ripper” may have killed her; the first crime outside Yorkshire which the killer has been suspected of.[28]
14 October – Fourteen people are injured in a bomb explosion at a London pub.
15 October – World’s End Murders: Christine Eadie and Helen Scott, both 17, disappeared after leaving the World’s End pub in Edinburgh, Scotland. Their bodies are found tied and strangled in the countryside the next day. In 2014, serial killer Angus Sinclair is convicted of the crime.
25 October – Michael Edwardes succeeds Richard Dobson as chief executive and chairman of British Leyland.
27 October
Former Liberal leader Jeremy Thorpe denies allegations of the attempted murder of and having a relationship with a male model, Norman Scott.[29]
Punk band Sex Pistols release Never Mind the Bollocks, Here are the Sex Pistols on the Virgin Records label. Despite the refusal by major retailers to stock it, it debuts at #1 on the UK Album Charts the week after its release. In a promotional stunt, the group performs on a boat on the River Thames shortly afterward, only for the police to wait for them and make several arrests, including that of Malcolm McLaren, the band’s manager at this time.
28 October
Police in Yorkshire appeal for help in finding the “Yorkshire Ripper”, who is believed to be responsible for a series of murders and attacks on women across the county during the last two years.
Rock band Queen release the album News of the World.
November[edit]
14 November – Firefighters go on their first-ever national strike, in hope of getting a 30% wage increase.[30]
15 November
The Queen becomes a grandmother for the first time when Princess Anne gives birth to a son.[4]
The first SavaCentre hypermarket, a venture between Sainsbury’s and British Home Stores, opens at Washington, Tyne, and Wear.[31]
22 November – British Airways inaugurates regular London to New York City supersonic Concorde service.
December[edit]
3 December – The England football team fails to achieve World Cup qualification for the second tournament in succession.
10 December
James Meade wins the 1977 Nobel Prize in Economics jointly with the Swede Bertil Ohlin for their “Pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements”.[32]
Nevill Francis Mott wins the Nobel Prize in Physics jointly with Philip Warren Anderson and John Hasbrouck van Vleck “for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems”.[33]
12 December
Chrysler Europe announces its new Horizon range of five-door front-wheel drive hatchbacks, which will be built in the UK as a Chrysler, and in France as a Simca. It will give buyers a more modern alternative to the Avenger range of rear-wheel-drive saloons and estates.
Ron Greenwood signs a permanent contract as England manager, despite England’s failure to qualify for next summer’s World Cup. The appointment is controversial, as there had been widespread support for Brian Clough of Nottingham Forest to be appointed.[34]
14 December – 25-year-old Leeds prostitute Marilyn Moore, is injured in an attack believed to have been committed by the Yorkshire Ripper.[35]
16 December – The Queen opens a £71,000,000 extension of London Underground’s Piccadilly Line, which runs to Heathrow Central, serving Heathrow Airport.[36][37]
21 December – Four children die at a house fire in Wednesbury, West Midlands, as Green Goddess fire appliances crewed by hastily trained troops are sent to deal with the blaze while firefighters are still on strike. 119 people have now died as a result of fires since the strike began, but this is the first fire during the strike which has resulted in more than two deaths.[38]
22 December – The Queen’s first grandchild is christened Peter Mark Andrew Phillips.[39]
25 December – The Morecambe & Wise Christmas Show on BBC 1 television attracts an audience of more than 28,000,000 viewers, one of the highest ever in UK television history.[40][41][42][43][44][45]
27 December – The much-acclaimed Star Wars film, which has been a massive hit in the United States, is screened in British cinemas for the first time.[46]
Undated[edit]
Inflation has fallen slightly this year to 15.8%, but it is the fourth successive year that has seen double-digit inflation.[47]
Colour television licenses exceed black and white ones for the first time in the UK.
Publications[edit]
Bruce Chatwin’s travel book In Patagonia.
Patrick Leigh Fermor’s travel book A Time Of Gifts.
John Fowles’ novel Daniel Martin.
Edith Holden’s nature notes The Country Diary of an Edwardian Lady (posthumous), which sells an initial print run of 148,000.[48]
Shirley Hughes’ children’s book Dogger.
Paul Scott’s novel Staying On.
J. R. R. Tolkien’s collection The Silmarillion (posthumous).
Science fiction comic 2000 AD (launched February).
Births[edit]
1 January – Rosena Allin-Khan, politician
7 January – Michelle Behennah, model
10 January – Michelle O’Neill, Sinn Féin leader
13 January – Orlando Bloom, actor
24 January – Hayley Tamaddon, actress
5 February – Ben Ainslie, sailor
18 February – Chrissie Wellington, triathlete
2 March – Chris Martin, singer-songwriter (Coldplay)
10 March – Colin Murray, radio DJ
10 May – Adrian Morley, rugby league footballer
13 May – Samantha Morton, actress
30 May – Rachael Stirling, actress
31 May – Joel Ross, DJ
6 June – Bryn Williams, Welsh chef, and author
24 June – Kristian Digby, television presenter (died 2010)
10 July – Chiwetel Ejiofor, actor
10 August – Danny Griffin, footballer
8 September – Gavin Meadows, freestyle swimmer
15 September – Tom Hardy, actor
26 October – Sarah Storey, Paralympian swimmer, and cyclist
1 November – Alistair Griffin, singer/songwriter
4 November – Kavana, singer
15 November – Peter Phillips, son of The Princess Anne
22 November – Michael Preston, footballer
6 December – Paul McVeigh, footballer
23 December – Matt Baker, television presenter
Deaths[edit]
14 January
Anthony Eden, former Prime Minister (born 1897)
Peter Finch, actor (born 1912)
19 February – Anthony Crosland, politician (born 1918)
26 March – Madeleine Dring, composer, and actress (born 1923)
1 April – Cyril Radcliffe, 1st Viscount Radcliffe, lawyer, and partitioner of India (born 1899)
17 April – William Conway, cardinal (born 1913)
2 June – Stephen Boyd, actor (born 1931)
3 June – Archibald Vivian Hill, physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (born 1886)
19 June – Lady Olave Baden-Powell, Chief Girl Guide (born 1889)
4 August – Lord Adrian, physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (born 1889)
13 August – Henry Williamson, author (born 1895)
16 August – William Wand, former Bishop of London (born 1885)
29 August – Edward Sinclair, actor (born 1914)
4 September – Lynton Lamb, illustrator and stamp designer (born 1907)
6 September – John Littlewood, mathematician (born 1885)
13 September – Leopold Stokowski, conductor (born 1882)
16 September – Marc Bolan, musician (car accident) (born 1947)
25 September – William McMillan, sculptor (born 1887)
11 October – Misha Black, architect, and designer (born 1910)
10 November – Dennis Wheatley, writer (born 1897)
30 November – Terence Rattigan, playwright (born 1911)
12 December – Clementine Churchill, widow of Winston Churchill (born 1885)
20 December – Henry Tandey, most highly decorated British private soldier of World War I (born 1891)
25 December – Charlie Chaplin, silent film comedy actor and director (born 1889)

Music

Events[edit]
1 January – The Clash headlined the gala opening of the London music club, The Roxy.
22 January – Maria Kliegel makes her London début at the Wigmore Hall, with a program of Bach, Kodály, and Franck.
26 January – Fleetwood Mac’s original lead guitarist, Peter Green, is committed to a mental hospital in England after firing a pistol at a delivery boy bringing him a royalties check.
27 January – After releasing only one single for the band, EMI Records terminates its contract with the Sex Pistols.
4 February – Fleetwood Mac’s Rumours is released; it goes on to become one of the best-selling albums of all time.
15 February – Sid Vicious replaces Glen Matlock as the bassist of the Sex Pistols.
10 March – A&M Records signs the Sex Pistols in a ceremony in front of Buckingham Palace. The contract is terminated on 16 March as a result of the band vandalizing property and verbally abusing employees during a visit to the record company’s office.
2 May – Elton John performs the first of six consecutive nights at London’s Rainbow Theatre, his first concert in eight months. John keeps a low profile in 1977, not releasing any new music for the first year since his recording career began eight years previously.
7 May – Having been postponed from 2 April because of a BBC technicians’ strike, the 22nd Eurovision Song Contest finally goes ahead in London’s Wembley Conference Centre.
11 May – The Stranglers and support band London start a 10-week national tour.
12 May – Virgin Records announces that they have signed the Sex Pistols.
7 June – The Sex Pistols attempt to interrupt Silver Jubilee celebrations for Queen Elizabeth II by performing “God Save the Queen” from a boat on the River Thames. The police force the boat to dock and several arrests are made following a scuffle.
12 June – Guitarist Michael Schenker vanishes after a UFO concert at The Roundhouse in London. He is replaced for several months by Paul Chapman until he appears again to rejoin the group in October.
15 June – The Snape Maltings Training Orchestra makes its London debut at St John’s, Smith Square.
25 June – The Young Musicians’ Symphony Orchestra of London, conducted by James Blair, gives the belated première of William Walton’s 1962 composition Prelude for Orchestra.
6 July – During a Pink Floyd concert before a crowd of 80,000 at Olympic Stadium in Montreal, Bassist Roger Waters has become increasingly irritated by a fan until he exerts his frustration by spitting on him. The incident becomes the catalyst for the group’s next album, The Wall.
22 July – The first night of The Proms is broadcast by BBC Radio 3 for the first time in quadraphonic sound.
26 July – Led Zeppelin cancels the last seven dates of their American tour after lead singer Robert Plant learns that his six-year-old son Karac has died of a respiratory virus. The show two days before in Oakland proves to be the band’s last ever in the United States.
1 September – World première at the Royal Albert Hall in London of the expanded version of Luciano Berio’s Coro.
16 September – T.Rex frontman Marc Bolan is killed in an automobile accident.
27 October – The Sex Pistols release their controversial album Never Mind the Bollocks, Here are the Sex Pistols, which would be their only studio album.

Posted by UK & Beyond on 2012-08-08 14:33:08

Tagged, British, Postage, Stamps, Christmas, 1977, 12 Days Of Christmas, Partridge in a Pear Tree, UK, Graphic Design, Stamp Design, Royal Mail, ‘Follow, me, Twitter, @courtfieldmedia’, longest-serving, longest reign, Neverendum, Christmas Illustrations, Christmas Illustration

Arrival review: heartfelt alien-contact movie communicates spectacular ideas

 

 

 

Amy Adams stars as a linguist reaching out to extraterrestrial visitors in Denis Villeneuve’s high-concept highwire act of a film

Denis Villeneuve’s sci-fi contact drama is dreamy, freaky, audacious. It skirts the edge of absurdity, as anything like this must, but manages to keep clear, and it includes a big flourish in the manner of early films by M Night Shyamalan, which adroitly finesses the narrative issue of what exactly to do with a movie about aliens showing up on Earth.

I have been agnostic about this kind of movie recently, after the overwrought disappointments of Christopher Nolans Interstellar and Jeff Nichols Midnight Special. But Villeneuve’s Arrival is both heartfelt and very entertaining.

As is now expected with this kind of film, the protagonist is a flustered, bewildered civilian with special expertise, brusquely pressed into service by the military, which has got the spacecraft surrounded in the short term.

Amy Adams is Dr. Louise Banks, a professor of comparative linguistics with nothing and no one in her life but her work. But as it happens, Dr. Banks was once seconded as a military adviser to translate a video of insurgents speaking Farsi. So when a dozen giant spaceships land in 12 different locations on Earth (including Devon sadly there no scenes there), each looking like a bisected rugby ball standing on end, a bunch of army guys led by Col Weber (Forest Whitaker) show up on Louise’s doorstep, demanding she come with them to help translate what the aliens are saying. Why, you ask, did they not approach Noam Chomsky, with his understanding of deep structure in language? Perhaps Prof Chomsky did not care to help America’s military-intelligence complex.

At any rate, Louise’s liaison is the flirtatious Ian Donnelly (Jeremy Renner), a military scientist who, in a stereotypical and fallacious way, equates his masculinity with science and affects to despise what he sees as the softer discipline of linguistics. Michael Stuhlbarg plays Halpern, the glowering CIA chief. But unbeknown to them, there is a secret tragedy in Louise’s life: a lost child died of cancer in her late teens. Her attempts to communicate with the aliens cause painful but illuminating echoes in her mind.

If a lion could speak, said Wittgenstein, we would not understand him. Does the same go for aliens? Spielberg solved this issue elegantly in Close Encounters of the Third Kind by making the form of communication a five-note musical phrase, ending questioningly on the dominant. Villeneuve’s solution is more literal. The aliens have a code which a little preposterously Louise finds herself more or less able to crack, with the crowdsourced expertise of the other 11 human-contact teams around the globe. But it is her human intuition, vulnerability, and spontaneity that finally enables her to reach out to the visitors.

Inevitably, these contact moments are where the film’s real impact and atmosphere have to be. And Villeneuve doesn’t disappoint in sequences of eerie and claustrophobic strangeness though I concede the film is most effective before the physical form of the aliens is revealed. There are also touches of comedy: Ian and Louise decide, for convenience’s sake, to nickname two aliens Abbott and Costello may be in homage to the linguistic misunderstanding in the duos famous routine about a baseball batting order.

By coolly switching focus to political intrigue and betrayal within the human ranks, Villeneuve keeps a grip on his story and creates ballast for its departure into the realms of the visionary and supernatural. And he also prepares us for the film’s sense that language itself, freed of our usual sense of its linear form, might be more important than anyone thought. (I wonder if Villeneuve has seen the 2010 documentary Into Eternity, by Danish filmmaker Michael Madsen, about attempts to devise a new universal language to label underground repositories of nuclear waste labels whose warnings have to be understood by future humans whose language has evolved away from what we know now.)

Arrival is a big, risky, showy movie that jumps up on its high-concept highwire and disdains a net. And yes, there are moments of silliness when it wobbles a little, but it provides you with spectacle and fervent romance.

Read more: www.theguardian.com/us

The post Arrival review: heartfelt alien-contact movie communicates spectacular ideas that appeared first on AlienVirals.com – Latest Alien & UFO News.

www.alienvirals.com/arrival-review-heartfelt-alien-contac…

Posted by alienvirals on 2017-07-06 03:21:36

Tagged:

Rome Revealed Giancarlo Gasponi (1981)

Samantha Jade performs at Bondi Beach

The image was taken in Rome in 1980/1981 by photographer Giancarlo Gasponi

A Look Back At The Year 1980!

January
2 January – Workers at British Steel Corporation go on a nationwide strike over pay called by the Iron and Steel Trades Confederation, which has some 90,000 members among British Steel’s 150,000 workforces, in a bid to get a 20% rise. It is the first steelworks strike since 1926.[1]
19 January – The first UK Indie Chart is published in Record Week.
20 January – The British record TV audience for a film is set when some 23,500,000 viewers tune in for the ITV showing of the James Bond film Live and Let Die (1973).
21 January – MS Athina B is beached at Brighton.
28 January – Granada Television airs a controversial edition of World in Action on ITV, in which it alleges that Manchester United F.C. chairman Louis Edwards has made unauthorised payments to the parents of some of the club’s younger players and has made shady deals to win local council meat contracts for his retail outlet chain.[2]
February[edit]
14 February – Margaret Thatcher announces that state benefit to strikers will be halved.
14 – 23 February – Great Britain and Northern Ireland compete at the Winter Olympics in Lake Placid, New York, United States, and win one gold medal (Robin Cousins for figure skating).
17 February – British Steel Corporation announces that more than 11,000 jobs will be axed at its plants in Wales by the end of next month.
25 February
The first episode of the popular political television sitcom Yes Minister broadcast by the BBC.
Manchester United chairman Louis Edwards dies from a heart attack at the age of 65, just weeks after allegations about his dealings with Manchester United and his retail outlet chain.
March[edit]
10 March – An opinion poll conducted by the Evening Standard suggests that six out of 10 Britons are dissatisfied with Margaret Thatcher’s Conservative government, who now trail Labour (still led by James Callaghan, the former prime minister) in the opinion polls.[3]
19–20 March – Radio Caroline, the pirate radio station, is forced to cease transmission when MV Mi Amigo, the ship on which it is based, runs aground and sinks off the Thames Estuary.[4]
25 March
The British Olympic Association votes to defy the government by sending athletes to the Olympic Games to be held in Moscow, USSR in the summer.[5]
Robert Runcie enthroned as Archbishop of Canterbury.[4]
26 March – The budget raises tax allowances and duties on petrol, alcohol and tobacco.
31 March
British Leyland agrees to sell the MG cars factory at Abingdon to a consortium headed by Aston Martin-Lagonda when the plant closes this autumn.
National Heritage Act sets up the National Heritage Memorial Fund.
Vauxhall, the British division of General Motors, launches the Astra, a front-wheel-drive hatchback which replaces the recently discontinued Viva and is based on the latest Opel Kadett. Although the car is currently produced in West Germany and Belgium, there are plans for British production to commence at the Ellesmere Port plant in Cheshire next year.
April[edit]
1 April – The steelworkers’ strike is called off.
4 April – Alton Towers Resort is opened by Madame Tussauds in Staffordshire.
10 April – The UK reaches an agreement with Spain to re-open its border with Gibraltar.
18 April – Zimbabwe becomes independent of the United Kingdom.[4]
22 April – Unemployment stands at a two-year high of more than 1.5million.
30 April – The Iranian Embassy Siege begins. A six-man terrorist team calling itself the “Democratic Revolutionary Movement for the Liberation of Arabistan” (DRMLA) captures the Embassy of Iran in Prince’s Gate, Knightsbridge, central London, taking 26 hostages.[4]
May[edit]
1 May – British Aerospace privatised.[6]
3 May – Liverpool win the Football League First Division title for 12th time.[7]
5 May – The SAS storm the Iranian Embassy building, kill 5 out of the 6 terrorists and free all the hostages.[8]
10 May – West Ham United, of the Second Division, wins the FA Cup for the third time in its history with a surprise 1–0 victory over First Division Arsenal in the final at Wembley Stadium. Trevor Brooking scores the only goal of the game to make West Ham United the third team from the Second Division to have won the trophy in the last eight years. As of 2018, West Ham are the last team from outside the top division to have won the FA Cup.[9]
16 May – Inflation has risen to 21.8%.
27 May – Inquest into the death of New Zealand born teacher Blair Peach (who was killed during a demonstration against the National Front last year) returns a verdict of misadventure, resulting in a public outcry.[9]
28 May – Nottingham Forest retain the European Cup with a 1–0 win over Hamburger SV, the West German league champions, in Madrid. The winning goal is scored by Scotland international John Robertson. The European Cup has now been won by an English club for the fourth successive year, as Liverpool won it for two consecutive years before Forest’s first victory last year.
June[edit]
June
British Leyland launches its Morris Ital range of family saloons and estates, which are a reworking of the nine-year-old Marina that was one of Britain’s most popular cars during the 1970s. Production is expected to finish by 1984 when an all-new front-wheel-drive model is added to the range, and sales begin on 1 August – the same day that the new W-registered cars go on sale.
The UK economy slides into recession.
6 June – Two Malaysian men are jailed for 14 years after being found guilty of running a drug-smuggling ring in London which generated millions of pounds.
12 June – Gail Kinchen (a pregnant 16-year-old) and her unborn baby are accidentally shot dead by a police marksman who entered the Birmingham flat where her boyfriend David Pagett is holding her hostage at gunpoint.[10] [11]
17 June – Secretary of State for Defence, Francis Pym reveals to the House of Commons that US nuclear cruise missiles would be located at RAF Greenham Common in Berkshire and the disused RAF Molesworth base in Cambridgeshire.[10]
19 June – Gunmen attack the British embassy in Iraq; three unknown attackers are shot dead by Iraqi security forces.[11]
24 June – Unemployment is announced to have reached a postwar high of 1,600,000.
26 June – The Glasgow Central by-election is held, with Labour retaining its hold on the seat despite a swing of 14% to the Scottish National Party.
30 June – The pre-decimal sixpence coin is withdrawn from circulation.[4]
July[edit]
1 July – MG’s Abingdon car factory looks set to close completely this autumn as Aston Martin fails to raise the funds to buy it from British Leyland.
8 July – Miners threatening to strike demand a 37% pay increase, ignoring pleas from Margaret Thatcher to hold down wage claims.
10 July – Alexandra Palace in London gutted by fire.[12]
19 July – 3 August: Great Britain and Northern Ireland compete at the Olympics in Moscow and win 5 gold, 7 silver and 9 bronze medals.
22 July – Unemployment has hit a 44-year high of nearly 1.9 million.
29 July – Margaret Thatcher announces the introduction of Enterprise Zones as an employment relief effort in some of the regions of Britain which have been hardest hit by deindustrialisation and unemployment.[12]
August[edit]
11 August
Margaret Thatcher visits the Harold Hill area of East London to hand off the keys to the 12,000th council tenants in Britain to buy their home under the right to buy scheme. However, she is met by jeering from neighbours of the family.
Tyne and Wear Metro opens on Tyneside after 6 years construction, with the first phase between Haymarket in Newcastle and Whitley Bay
16 August – 37 people die as a result of the Denmark Place fire, arson at adjacent London nightclubs.[13]
28 August – Unemployment now stands at 2million for the first time since 1935. Economists warn that it could rise to up to 2.5million by the end of next year.[14]
September[edit]
1 September – Ford launches one of the most important new cars of the year – the mark 3 Escort, which is a technological innovation in the small family car market, spelling the end of the traditional rear-wheel-drive saloon in favour of the front-wheel-drive hatchback, and following a trend in this sector of car which is being repeated all over Western Europe. An estate version is also available.
9 September – Bibby Line’s Liverpool-registered ore-bulk-oil carrier MV Derbyshire sinks with the loss of all 44 crew south off Japan in Typhoon Orchid following structural failure. At 91,655 gross tons, she is the largest UK-registered ship ever lost.
11 September – The Marlborough diamond is stolen in London.[15]
12 September
Consett Steelworks in Consett, County Durham closes with the loss of 4500 jobs, instantly making it the town with the highest rate of unemployment in the UK.
Marlborough diamond thieves Joseph Scalise and Arthur Rachel are arrested in Chicago after getting off a British Airways flight in the city. However, the stolen diamond has not been found.[13]
13 September – Hercules, a bear which had gone missing on a Scottish island filming a Kleenex advertisement, is found.[16]
21 September – First CND rally at RAF Greenham Common.[6]
24 September – 34-year-old Singapore born doctor Upadhya Bandara is attacked and injured in Headingley, Leeds; the Yorkshire Ripper is believed to have been responsible.[17]
October[edit]
3 October – The 1980 Housing Act comes into effect, giving council house tenants of three years’ standing in England and Wales the right to buy their home from their local council at a discount.[18]
6 October – Deregulation of express coach services.
8 October – British Leyland launches the Austin Metro, a small three-door hatchback which makes use of the much of the Mini’s drivetrain and suspension, including its 998cc and 1275cc engines. The Mini will continue to be produced alongside the Metro at Longbridge in Birmingham, which was recently expanded to accommodate Metro production.
10 October – Margaret Thatcher makes her “The lady’s not for turning” speech to the Conservative Party conference after-party MP’s warn that her economic policy was responsible for the current recession and rising unemployment.[19]
15 October
James Callaghan, ousted as Prime Minister by the Conservative victory 17 months ago, resigns as Labour Party leader after four and a half years.
Former Prime Minister Harold Macmillan, 86, criticises Margaret Thatcher’s economic policies, claiming that she has “got the wrong answer” to the economic crises which she inherited from Labour last year. Her economic policies are also criticised by union leaders, who blame her policies for rising unemployment and bankruptcies, and warn that this could result in civil unrest.[20]
17 October – Elizabeth II makes history by becoming the first British monarch to make a state visit to the Vatican.[21]
22 October – Lord Thomson announces that The Times and Sunday Times will be closed down within five months unless a buyer is found.
24 October – MG car production ends after 56 years with the closure of the plant in Abingdon, Oxfordshire, where more than 1.1million MG cars have been built since it opened in 1924.[22]
28 October – Margaret Thatcher declares that the government will not give in to seven jailed IRA terrorists who are on hunger strike in the Maze Prison in hope of winning prisoner of war status.
November[edit]
5 November – Theresa Sykes, a 16-year-old Huddersfield mother of a young baby, is wounded in a stabbing near her home in the town. The Yorkshire Ripper is believed to be responsible.[23]
10 November – Michael Foot is elected Leader of the Labour Party.[24]
13 November – George Smith, a security guard, is shot dead when the van he is guarding is intercepted by armed robbers in Willenhall, West Midlands.[14] [15]
17 November – University student Jacqueline Hill, aged 20, is murdered in Headingley, Leeds.
19 November – Police investigating the murder of Jacqueline Hill establish that she was probably the 13th woman to be killed by the Yorkshire Ripper.[25]
23 November – Despite the economy now being in recession and the government’s monetarist economic policy to tackle inflation being blamed for the downturn, the government announces further public spending cuts and tax rises.
December[edit]
8 December – John Lennon is shot dead in New York.[26]
10 December – Frederick Sanger wins his second Nobel Prize in Chemistry, jointly with Walter Gilbert, “for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids”.[27]
14 December – Thousands of music fans hold a 10-minute vigil in Liverpool for John Lennon.
18 December – Michael Foot’s hopes of becoming prime minister in the next general election are given a boost by a MORI poll which shows Labour on 56% with a 24-point lead over the Conservatives.[28]
23 December – American animated special Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer airs for the last ever time on ITV.
26 & 28 December – Sightings of unexplained lights near RAF Woodbridge Suffolk, which become known as the Rendlesham Forest incident, the most well-known claimed UFO event in Britain.[29]
28 December – The Independent Broadcasting Authority award contracts for commercial broadcasting on ITV. TV-am is awarded the first-ever breakfast TV contract and is set to go on air by 1983.[30]
Undated[edit]
Inflation has risen to 18% as Margaret Thatcher’s battle against inflation is still in its early stages.[31]
The economy contracts throughout the year, shrinking by 4% overall with the greatest decline occurring in the second quarter of the year at 1.8%.[16]
Insider trading in shares becomes illegal under United Kingdom company law.
Britain becomes self-sufficient in oil.[32]
Alton Towers begins development as a theme park.
Transcendental Meditation movement community established in Skelmersdale.
Publications[edit]
Douglas Adams’ novel The Restaurant at the End of the Universe, second of The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy “trilogy”.
Julian Barnes’ first novel Metroland.
Anthony Burgess’s novel Earthly Powers.
The Church of England’s Alternative Service Book.
William Golding’s novel Rites of Passage, first of the To the Ends of the Earth trilogy.
David Lodge’s novel How Far Can You Go?.
Iris Murdoch’s novel Nuns and Soldiers.
Barry Unsworth’s novel Pascali’s Island.
Benjamin Zephaniah’s first poetry collection Pen Rhythm.
Births[edit]
1 January – Richie Faulkner, rock guitarist (Judas Priest)
20 January – Jenson Button, racing driver
5 February – Jo Swinson, Scottish politician, leader of the Liberal Democrats (UK)
10 February
Ralf Little, footballer and actor
Steve Tully, footballer
13 March – Linda Clement, Scottish field hockey player
23 March – Russell Howard, English comedian and television and radio presenter
28 March – Angela Rayner, Labour politician
29 March – Andy Scott-Lee, Welsh singer (3SL) & Pop Idol (series 2) contestant
8 April
Ben Freeman, actor
Cheryl Valentine, Scottish field hockey midfielder
8 May – Michelle McManus, Scottish singer, winner of Pop Idol (series 2) and television host
9 May – Kate Richardson-Walsh, English field hockey player
30 May – Steven Gerrard, footballer

Khalid Abdalla
1 June
Martin Devaney, footballer
Oliver James, actor
2 June – Richard Skuse, rugby player
4 June – Philip Olivier, actor
10 June – Jovanka Houska, chess master
23 June – Jessica Taylor, singer (Liberty X)
29 June – Katherine Jenkins, mezzo-soprano
18 July – Tasmin Lucia-Khan, television news presenter
28 July – Leo Houlding, English rock climber
19 August – Adam Campbell, actor
23 August – Joanne Froggatt, English actress of stage
12 September – Kevin Sinfield, English rugby league player
14 October – Ben Whishaw, actor
26 October – Khalid Abdalla, Scottish-born actor
28 October – Alan Smith, footballer
12 November – Charlie Hodgson, English rugby union player
19 November – Adele Silva, actress
6 December – Steve Lovell, footballer
7 December – John Terry, footballer
20 December – Ashley Cole, footballer
25 December – Laura Sadler, television actress (died 2003)
Deaths[edit]
11 January – Barbara Pym, novelist (born 1913)
18 January – Sir Cecil Beaton, photographer (born 1904)
4 February – Edith Summerskill, physician, feminist, Labour politician and campaigner (born 1901)
17 February – Graham Sutherland, artist (born 1903)
1 March – Dixie Dean, football player (born 1907)
7 March – John Illingworth, yachtsman, yacht designer and naval officer (born 1903)
18 March – Ludwig Guttmann, neurologist and pioneer of paralympic games (born 1899 in Germany)
29 April – Alfred Hitchcock, film director (born 1899)
14 May – Hugh Griffith, actor (born 1912)
18 May – Ian Curtis, post-punk musician and singer (Joy Division) (born 1956)
7 June – Elizabeth Craig, writer (born 1883)
12 June – Billy Butlin, founder of Butlins holiday camps (born 1899 in South Africa)
23 June – John Laurie, actor (born 1897)
1 July – C. P. Snow, novelist and physicist (born 1905)
24 July – Peter Sellers, comic actor (born 1925)
26 July – Kenneth Tynan, theatre critic (born 1927)
24 August – Yootha Joyce, actress (born 1927)
September – Adrian Bell, farmer and writer (born 1901)
25 September – John Bonham, drummer (Led Zeppelin) (born 1948)
6 October – Hattie Jacques, comic actress (heart attack) (born 1922)
4 November – Johnny Owen, boxer (born 1956)
8 November – Valerie Myerscough, mathematician and astrophysicist (born 1942)
22 November – Norah McGuinness, painter and illustrator (born 1901)
26 November – Rachel Roberts, actress (suicide) (born 1927)
3 December – Oswald Mosley, leader of the British Union of Fascists (born 1896)
8 December
John Lennon, pop singer-songwriter and guitarist (The Beatles) (murdered in the United States) (born 1940)
Charles Parker, radio documentary producer (born 1919)

Chart date
(week ending)song artist(s)
5 January”Another Brick in the Wall”Pink Floyd
12 January
19 January”Brass in Pocket”The Pretenders
26 January
2 February Special AKA Live!The Specials
9 February
16 February”Coward of the County”Kenny Rogers
23 February
1 March”Atomic” Blondie
8 March
15 March”Together We Are Beautiful”Fern Kinney
22 March”Going Underground / Dreams of Children”The Jam
29 March
5 April
12 April”Working My Way Back to You”The Detroit Spinners
19 April
26 April”Call Me”Blondie
3 May”Geno” Dexys Midnight Runners
10 May
17 May”What’s Another Year”Johnny Logan
24 May
31 May” Suicide Is Painless (Theme from M*A*S*H)”Johnny Mandel
7 June
14 June
21 June”Crying” Don McLean
28 June
5 July
12 July”Xanadu” Olivia Newton-John/Electric Light Orchestra
19 July
26 July”Use It Up and Wear It Out”Odyssey
2 August
9 August”The Winner Takes It All”ABBA
16 August
23 August”Ashes to Ashes”David Bowie
30 August
6 September”Start!”The Jam
13 September”Feels Like I’m In Love”Kelly Marie
20 September
27 September”Don’t Stand So Close to Me”The Police
4 October
11 October
18 October
25 October”Woman in Love”Barbra Streisand
1 November
8 November
15 November”The Tide Is High”Blondie
22 November
29 November”Super Trouper” ABBA
6 December
13 December
20 December”(Just Like) Starting Over”John Lennon
27 December”There’s No-one Quite Like Grandma” St. Winifred’s School Choir

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1977 Close Encounters of the Third Kind Film Locations

Samantha Jade performs at Bondi Beach

1977 Close Encounters of the Third Kind Film Locations

After an encounter with U.F.O.s, a line worker feels undeniably drawn to an isolated area in the wilderness where something spectacular is about to happen.

Director: Steven Spielberg
Writer: Steven Spielberg
Stars: Richard Dreyfuss, François Truffaut, Teri Garr, etc

Filming Locations

Steven Spielberg resurrected the Cinema of Awe not seen since the days of the great religious epics (just count the references to The Ten Commandments) as the earth is visited by friendly aliens.

The opening sandstorm and the ship stranded in the ‘Sahara Desert’ seen in the Special Edition were filmed in California’s Mojave Desert.

Also in the California desert is the air traffic control center, which is in Palmdale. Howard K Smith, the news anchorman, shot his scenes in Washington DC, and the footage of Claude Lacombe (French director François Truffaut) making recordings of the musical notes in India was filmed in Hal, a small village near Khalapur, about 35 miles southeast of Mumbai.

Most of the filming, however, was in Alabama, where dirigible hangars, larger than any Hollywood soundstage, were found to house the enormous sets. Consequently, the whole production moved to the South. The landing site was the biggest indoor set ever built, constructed at the former air force base, now an industrial complex in Mobile.

The hangars are numbers 5 and 6, Building 17 of the Brookley Field Industrial Complex, Old Bay Street, Mobile. Other sets built in the hangars include the road bend where the cop cars attempt to follow the alien craft into space and the interior of the Neary home. The mountainside scenes used artificial boulders – with only twelve basic shapes carefully placed at differing angles to prevent patterns from becoming obvious.

The house of Roy Neary (Richard Dreyfuss) is 1613 Carlisle Drive East, off Howells Ferry Road in Colonial Heights, to the west of Mobile, while Jillian’s mother’s house is in Baldwin County to the east of the city.

The big evacuation scene filmed at Bay Minette over the Mobile and Tensaw Rivers, 30 miles northeast of Mobile on Route 31.

Apart from the ‘strip’ itself, the landing site is real and has since become a major tourist attraction. The striking sawn-off peak of Devil’s Tower National Monument can be found in the northeast corner of Wyoming in the Black Hills National Forest.

According to native legend, the strange formation was made by giant bears clawing at a mountain to reach a princess on the summit. More prosaically, according to science, it’s an ‘igneous intrusion’ – solidified magma which had welled up inside (since eroded) sedimentary rock.

Devil’s Tower was designated the US’ first national monument, in 1906. It’s open all year round, and there’s a visitor center open from April to October, about three miles from the entrance. It’s 33 miles northeast of Moorcroft, I-90.

Close Encounters of the Third Kind ( FILMING LOCATION ) Part 1

www.youtube.com/watch?v=YiJKVBol5V4

Close Encounters of the Third Kind ( FILMING LOCATION ) Part 2

www.youtube.com/watch?v=TFQPLUhbuSc

Film Facts

The iconic five-note melody was a chance arrangement that both John Williams and Steven Spielberg happened to like out of hundreds of different permutations.

Cary Guffey’s performances were so good that they only ever had to do one or two takes of each shot he was in. He became known as One-Take Cary on the set, and Steven Spielberg had a t-shirt printed up for him with the phrase written on it.

The words that the crowd in India is chanting are “Aaya Re! Aaya!” which in Hindi means “He has come”.

During the dinner scene just before Roy piles on the mashed potatoes, you can hear the little girl say, “There’s a fly in my potatoes.” This was unscripted and almost caused the rest of the cast to laugh. The scene was kept as-is.

The situation on U.S. Navy Flight 19, from which the airplanes that appear in the Mexican desert came from, disappeared off Fort Lauderdale, Fla., in December 1945. No trace has ever been found of “the Lost Flight 19” which left the Naval Air Station near there in 1945.

Stanley Kubrick was so impressed by Cary Guffey’s performance that he wanted him for the role of Danny Torrence in The Shining (1980).

In the scene where Ronnie cuts out a newspaper article about the UFO sightings, the night after Roy’s first glimpse of the UFOs, an article on Star Wars: Episode IV – A New Hope (1977) appears on either side of the UFO article.

Paul Schrader wrote the original script. When Steven Spielberg changed a great deal of it, Schrader decided to remove his credit. Since the film couldn’t be left with no credit for writing, Spielberg claimed it for himself.

Most of the UFO miniatures were filmed in dark smoke-filled rooms to give them a halo effect and so the beams of light emanating from them would be more prominent.

Steven Spielberg has stated that absolutely nothing in his life has been more difficult than editing the final 25 minutes of Close Encounters of the Third Kind.

CE3K was partly inspired by an experience from Steven Spielberg’s childhood, when without advance warning, his parents rushed the children into their car one night, drove to an area where many others were gathered, and watched a spectacular meteor shower.

Real air traffic controllers were used in the opening sequence. The synthesizer technician/performer was the actual engineer sent by ARP Instruments to install the synthesizer equipment (ARP 2500) on the set. Steven Spielberg watched his expert playing of the equipment and immediately cast him for the role. The name of the ARP engineer is Philip Dodds and he is actually mentioned in the credits.

François Truffaut’s English was not strong. In order to get through some of his scenes, he stuck pieces of paper with his lines on them on various objects where he could read from them but the camera would not pick them up. In one case, as he arguing stands face to face with an Army officer (who has his back to the camera), he is, in fact, reading his lines off a card pinned to the man’s chest. (He had shown the same trick being used with an actress who was having trouble with her lines in his own Day for Night (1973) (Day for Night), in which he played the director of the movie-within-the-movie.)

J. Allen Hynek was a famous ufologist and too the creator of the diverse kinds of contact with extra-terrestrial life explained in the book “The UFO Experience: A Scientific Study” (1972). First kind: sighting of an one or more UFOs. Second kind: observation of physical evidence of extraterrestrial visitation. Third kind: contact with one or more extra-terrestrials.

Became one of the first films to have a “Special Edition” director’s cut made when Steven Spielberg wanted to improve his original vision.

The John Williams score was created before the film was edited. Steven Spielberg edited the film to match the music, a reverse of what is usually done in the film scoring process. Both Spielberg and Williams felt that it ultimately gave the film a lyrical feel.

SFX man Douglas Trumbull created the cloud effects by injecting white paint into tanks half filled with saltwater and half-filled with fresh water.

Bob Balaban had not spoken French since high school. When Spielberg, over the phone, asked if he did speak French, he answered in bad French that he did not speak much, half hoping that someone in the room, overhearing the call, could at least know enough French to hear that he was no good at it. No one did. Balaban auditioned in French. The actor attended Berlitz classes and spent hours talking to Truffaut in preparation for his role. In 1980 the two filmed additional footage for the revised Special Edition of “Encounters.”

Cinematographer Vilmos Zsigmond overexposed the scenes with the extraterrestrials deliberately so they would appear fuzzy and diffuse. When producer Julia Phillips saw the footage, she thought he’d made a mistake and ordered the film re-processed so that the aliens came out with normal contrast, and their rubber heads and suits were obviously fake. She then told Zsigmond he’d botched up the filming and it looked awful. The upset Zsigmond told the lab to reprocess the film the way he originally said and everything looked fine in dailies the next day.

The hand signals used by the aliens are actually used by classroom teachers to teach the solfege scale. They were invented by the Reverend John Curwen, an English Congregationalist minister, and then adapted by composer Zoltán Kodály.

It is possible to see an upside-down R2-D2 (from Star Wars: Episode IV – A New Hope (1977), etc) in part of the large spacecraft that flies over Devils Tower. The SFX people needed more detail, and so supposedly there are many more such items, such as a shark from Jaws (1975) (also directed by Steven Spielberg), etc. R2-D2 is visible as Jillian first sees the mothership up close from her hiding place in the rocks.

Opened the same week that Star Wars: Episode IV – A New Hope (1977) overtook Jaws (1975) to become the biggest blockbuster of all time.

Tuba player Jim Self is the “musical voice” of the mother-ship in the climactic scene when the big ship comes down on Devils Tower. Steven Spielberg and John Williams chose the tuba as the voice of the mother-ship because the difficulty of playing the instrument added a human characteristic to the aliens.

According to Julia Phillips in her autobiography “You’ll Never Eat Lunch in This Town Again”, she and the studio did not want to meet Richard Dreyfuss’ price of $500,000 plus gross points to play Roy Neary and offered the script to Al Pacino, Jack Nicholson, and Gene Hackman. Pacino wasn’t interested, and Nicholson thought that any actor would be overwhelmed by the special effects. Hackman turned down the role because he was in a troubled marriage and could not spend 16 weeks outside of Los Angeles on location-shooting. The studio suggested James Caan, but his agent wanted $1 million-plus 10% of the gross. Phillips went back to Dreyfuss and cut his deal back a bit, and he became immortalized on film as Roy Neary.

In the scene where Barry (Cary Guffey) says, “Toys!” as he looks out the window and spots the UFOs, Steven Spielberg actually pulled out a toy car behind the camera to cause Barry’s unexpected one-take reaction.

For the scene where Richard Dreyfuss appears to go weightless in his truck in his first encounter with flying saucers, his truck was put on a turntable and rotated 360 degrees.

Lacombe is François Truffaut’s only acting role in a film that he did not direct.

Humans communicate with the aliens by making music with their computers. Writer-director Steven Spielberg’s mother was a musician and his father was a computer scientist. Spielberg himself had not thought of this until it was pointed out by James Lipton in an interview on Inside the Actors Studio (1994).

The working title was “Watch the Skies,” the closing words from The Thing from Another World (1951). These words also can be heard in the cartoon that wakes, Neary.

Actor Bob Balaban kept a diary of behind-the-scenes events during production. This diary was published to tie-in with the release of the film.

Steven Spielberg repeatedly watched John Ford’s The Searchers (1956) while he was making the film.

Steven Spielberg was originally aiming for a Summer 1978 release date for CE3K, but Columbia Pictures – on the verge of bankruptcy – spurred him to finish it for late 1977. This meant that Spielberg felt rushed, and had left important elements out of the film. Because of the large success of CE3K on its first theatrical run, Columbia was happy to give Spielberg another $2 million to film the interior of the alien spaceship for “The Special Edition”. In retrospect, Spielberg now acknowledges that doing all of this addition was unnecessary.

Richard Dreyfuss had become quite interested in the ideas behind “CE3K” when he had heard Steven Spielberg talking about them on the set of Jaws (1975). When Dreyfus heard that casting for “CE3K” was underway, he began a concerted effort to persuade the director to take him on.

The last scene to be filmed was the opening scene in the desert.

The film originally ended with the version of When You Wish Upon a Star used in the film Pinocchio (1940), but it tested negatively in previews and was cut. That is why Roy Neary was trying to convince his family to see that film together just before the blackout. The song remains incorporated in the John Williams score, though. A toy can also be heard playing the song’s melody right before Roy rips off the top off his sculpture.

The underside of the mothership was inspired by the lights of the San Fernando Valley at night.

The darkening sky and the shape of the clouds forming in the scene before Jilian’s son gets abducted by the aliens resembles that of the “Angel of Death” in The Ten Commandments (1956) that comes into the sky before the slaying of all the firstborn of Egypt begins. Also, Roy and his family are watching this movie on TV before he is called to work after the power failure.

The ship found in the Gobi Desert, ‘The Cotopaxi’, is an actual tramp steamer that went down in the Bermuda Triangle in December of 1925.

No one was more surprised than Steven Spielberg when his first choice to play the Frenchman – François Truffaut – said yes to appearing in his first American film.

The mothership is now located at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy annex of the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, south of the Dulles Airport, in Chantilly, VA. Visible on it are a miniature R2-D2, a mailbox, a cemetery, and models of the airplanes that were abducted by the ship.

All of the stars in the background of the night shots, as well as many distant trees, hills, roads, etc.,  were special effects and not real. This is true even in non-special effect shots, such as when Neary’s truck is just driving along country roads.

Steven Spielberg had approached Steve McQueen, Dustin Hoffman, and Gene Hackman for the role of Roy Neary. Jack Nicholson was also considered. McQueen turned the role down because he said he wasn’t able to cry on film.

Stuntman Craig R. Baxley was injured during the sequence where the police cars are chasing the UFOs on a mountain road. This stunt called for him to skid around a turn, go through a fence and over an embankment, but Baxley was traveling too fast, and he overshot the area where he was supposed to land. His car landed too hard and, even though he was wearing a helmet, he received head injuries. He was hospitalized for several days.

Melinda Dillon – who earned an Oscar nomination for her performance – was not cast until the weekend before she was due to begin filming.

The federal agent-types on stage with Lacombe during the auditorium scene where he teaches the hand signals were real federal agents. Similarly, some of the extras who played scientists in the end sequence were real scientists. However, one of the “agents” was actually the principal of Foley High School in Foley AL, a town near Mobile AL, and was an actor in local theatres.

From a budget of $20 million (sizeable at the time), this went on to become one of the top-grossing films of the 1970s.

Despite the title “Close Encounters of the Third Kind”, Barry and the other abductees were actually involved in a case of “Close Encounters of the Fourth Kind”, which means being abducted by extraterrestrial beings. However, among other problems, the phrase “Close Encounters of the Fourth Kind” had not been invented yet, and was unnecessary for Steven Spielberg’s use.

Steven Spielberg knew only vaguely what the mothership would look like when he was filming the live-action scenes. Basically he decided it would be big and hulk-like, and very dark. While filming in India months later he drove past a giant oil refinery every day and was inspired by the many lights and pipes and outcroppings on the rig to change the look of the spaceship. He now decided it would be brightly lit, which is how it appears in the final film, even though the footage of it casting a dark shadow over the crowd had already been shot.

The UFO landing site built for the movie was 27 m high, 137 m long, and 76 m wide, making it the largest indoor film set ever constructed. The structure included 6.4 km of scaffolding, 1570 square meters of fiberglass, and 2740 square meters of nylon canopy.

One early concept for interpreting the aliens included an orangutan on roller skates. The idea did not work, because the orangutan became very frightened the second its roller skates touched the ground, and it kept grabbing onto the arms of its caretaker.

A model miniature was used for some of the shots in the climactic scene. At least part of the illumination coming out of the ship was created by a set of Christmas lights strung up on the back of a metal plate, behind little tiny alien figures, creating the silhouetted look we see. This was composited into a shot with real-life actors.

Several scenes were filmed around Mobile, AL, and many locals were cast. This is why several characters in the film have accents uncharacteristic of those from Indiana and Wyoming.

The film holds the record for most cinematographers on production (11, counting the Special Edition).

Steven Spielberg was eager to show François Truffaut the giant landing site set, hoping to impress the other director. Truffaut didn’t seem to be impressed at all. Spielberg and his crewmates later realized that Truffaut was used to directing movies in small, intimate settings, and Truffaut simply could not grasp the scale of the landing site. When he went into the set of the hotel room where Jillian watches the Devils Tower newscast, Truffaut stood in the middle of the room, raised his arms up, and said, “Now, THIS is a set!”

From the beginning when he took the part of Lacombe, François Truffaut made it quite clear that he was working strictly as an actor, and he had no interest in helping out as an assistant director.

Meryl Streep auditioned to play Veronica.

Steven Spielberg cast Teri Garr in the film after seeing her work on a coffee commercial.

According to the book, ‘Reel Gags’ by Bill Givens, Grateful Dead singer Jerry Garcia was an extra during the scenes in India, and he can be seen in a crowd shot.

Steven Spielberg and other producers wanted Walter Cronkite as a newsreader for the broadcast that Neary ignores in the living room sculpture scene. However, CBS would not allow Cronkite to take the role, so producers settled on ABC’s Howard K. Smith. Unfortunately, the news cutaway scene to Wyoming reporter was filmed before this decision; as a result, the reporter says Order your steak well-done, Walter. In addition, during the interrogation of Neary by Lacombe, Neary shouts “You think I investigate every Walter Cronkite story there is?”

To get the spaceships’ attention prior to their arrival at Devils Tower, the five notes the scientists play are G, A, F, (octave lower) F, C. When they arrive at the tower and are attempting communication, the notes they play are B flat, C, A flat, (octave lower) A flat, E flat.

At the beginning of the film in the Sonoran Desert, from inside one of the World War II airplanes, they pull out a calendar that looks vintage from 1945. Across the grid of the days of a full month on the calendar is plainly seen a light blue logo from the defunct Security National Bank (which did not exist in 1945, either). In the fall of 1972, Security National Bank issued a 1973 calendar that corresponded exactly, month by month, day by day, to the 1945 calendar for fun. Thus, this unique idea was a promotional give away to the bank’s customers. The props crew for CE3K probably could not locate an authentic 1945 calendar, so instead, they utilized the fake vintage calendar, which was not hard to find in 1976.

This is essentially an adult rethink of “Firelight”, a movie that Steven Spielberg made as an adolescent. He even gave Douglas Trumbull and Vilmos Zsigmond notes that he’d made at that time, for their work on “Close Encounters of the Third Kind”.

Ray Bradbury declared this the greatest science fiction film ever made.

Claude Lacombe (François Truffaut) is based on real-life French UFO expert Jacques Vallée.

Richard Dreyfuss’s father was an extra in the film and spent six months on location; however, the scenes in which he appeared never made the final cut.

Gillian’s phone number, seen when she tries to dial for help when the aliens come for Barry, is 311-555-2368. This number frequently appeared on phones in Bell Telephone print ads around the late 1960s. Area code 311 is not an Area Code in North America, and it never will be. 311 is used in recent times as a non-emergency number for municipal services.

A highly detailed miniature and the filming technique “forced perspective” were used to create the effect of an ocean freighter left stranded in the Gobi desert.

Melinda Dillon was cast largely at the suggestion of director Hal Ashby. He had heard that Steven Spielberg was having difficulty casting the part of Jillian, and Ashby had just completed his movie Bound for Glory (1976) with her in the cast – and liked her work. So Ashby sent Spielberg a couple of film reels containing her acting. Upon seeing those, Speilberg hired Dillon immediately.

In a new technique, the special effects were produced in 70mm. A live-action shot which would later have a special effect added, would also be shot in 70mm. The rest of the film was shot in 35mm. When the 70mm special effects shot was overlaid on the 70mm live-action, the overall graininess was the same as normal, non-effect 35mm film, thus matching the rest of the film, even after the completed film was blown up to 70mm prints. This was to avoid the effect Steven Spielberg had noticed in previous effects-laden films, where the viewer instinctively knew when a special effect was coming up, because of the change in the grain of the shot.

Look for the same “Devils Tower” geological formation that John Ford used in My Darling Clementine (1946) – that’s where Steven Spielberg got the location idea.

The nine-foot diameter model of the mothership that was used in the final sequences was kept locked up in Steven Spielberg’s garage to help prevent pictures of it from appearing in the media before the release of the film.

John Williams wanted the music to “convey a sense of awe and fascination” as well as “overwhelming happiness and excitement” at the prospect of seeing aliens for the first time.

The entire landing strip complex behind Devils Tower was actually constructed and filmed in an abandoned aircraft hangar at the former Brookley AFB in Mobile, Alabama.

Steven Spielberg and Joe Alves at first thought they would build the landing site in Monument Valley but realized that it would present great difficulties in controlling climate and lighting conditions. They settled on an abandoned hangar near Mobile, Alabama where they thought they’d have greater control over the enormous $700,000 set. Bigger than a football field and six times the size of the largest Hollywood sound stage, the hangar harbored its own climate, trapping humidity that sometimes caused clouds and precipitation during filming. Dozens of very large lights were needed, and the 200 extras involved necessitated careful choreography of movement. All of this meant frequent delays and rising costs. The scenes filmed on this set accounted for only about a fifth of the film’s running time but took up easily half of the shooting schedule. Spielberg stated, “That set became our shark on this picture.”

Douglas Trumbull achieved the dramatic cloud effects by filling a tank half full of saltwater with lighter freshwater on top, then injecting paint into the top layer. The paint billowed through the freshwater but flattened out at the top of the heavier salt water, creating the effect we see on screen.

Cary Guffey really did cry at the end of the movie when he said goodbye to the aliens. Steven Spielberg told him to think of all his friends going away forever.

While no part of the film was actually shot in Muncie, Indiana, a production team did visit for local details and props, such as the pull-down map of Muncie that Roy consults in his truck. They also visited the bookstore of Ball State University for university memorabilia, such as a fraternity “BSU” paddle visible on Roy’s wall, and the red-and-white “BallU” (or U-Ball) T-shirt worn by Roy in the shaving-cream scene.

Neary also references Walter Cronkite when he’s being interviewed saying, “You think I investigate every Walter Cronkite story there is … huh?!”

The organization that Claude Lacombe (François Truffaut) leads is called the “Mayflower Project”. Its flag is a white one with a black triangle on it, and it can be seen in the secret reunion scene (where Lacombe explains the manual signals for the musical notes) between the American and France flags.

The huge success of the film made a popular icon of its signature logo, a black-and-white image of a highway receding towards a glowing horizon at night. In 1978, an enterprising group of students from the College of Architecture at Ball State University in Muncie, IN, manufactured and sold a small production run of black T-shirts emulating the logo and typeface of the original, but reading “MUNCIE INDIANA: A Gross Encounter of the Worst Kind.” Sales were going well until stories about the shirts appeared in local media, prompting complaints from Columbia Pictures, which was offended about the logo, and the Muncie City Council, which was offended about the slogan.

When the aliens visit Jillian’s home, there’s a shot of the screws in the floor vent unscrewing. This is shown in extreme close-up. The unscrewing effect is very similar to what we see in the movie version of The War of the Worlds (1953).

Neary gives his date of birth as December 4, 1944. This is also the date of birth of Richard Dreyfuss’ older brother Lorin Dreyfuss — and, by coincidence, a year and a day before the disappearance of Flight 19, on which the lost planes in the movie are based.

During the very beginning of the “space show” at the end of the film, the various dots (ships) during their tricks in the sky, form the “Big Dipper.” This takes place just before Roy and Gillian laugh as they watch the objects in the sky.

While making Jaws (1975), Steven Spielberg was sure he was in the midst of the most difficult production he would ever have to tackle. He would come to find Close Encounters to be “twice as bad, and twice as expensive, as well.”

Vilmos Zsigmond, the director of photography on The Sugarland Express (1974), returned to work with Spielberg after passing up the job of shooting Jaws (1975). He found the director more commanding and less eager to discuss options than previously, but Zsigmond was enthusiastic to be on the picture. “(Close Encounters)” had the smell of a great movie. We fell into sandtraps not because anybody made mistakes but because we were making things that had never been done before.” Zsigmond found himself blamed for many of those “sandtraps” by producer Julia Phillips and the studio, who almost fired him over his insistence that he needed at least one day to pre-light the enormous set. Nevertheless, Zsigmond refused to give in to pressure to use less lighting, and he was supported in this by Spielberg and especially Trumbull, who knew what it would take to match the scenes to the special effects. After the first two months of shooting in Mobile, when studio executives and financial backers began to show up on set, Phillips insisted on firing him. Several other cinematographers were called as potential replacements–John Alonzo, László Kovács, Ernest Laszlo–but most of them were friends of Zsigmond and agreed that if he couldn’t handle the job, no one could.

According to Melinda Dillon, because it was done without rehearsal, the scene in the kitchen with all the objects flying around was truly scary, and her alarming reactions were often quite real and spontaneous as she tried to protect herself and Cary Guffey.

In an interview for the “making-of” featurette on the DVD release, a grown Cary Guffey said it was embarrassing for him to shoot the scene of him exiting the mother ship because he had to wear ballet slippers to keep from falling on the ramp.

Six “wrap parties” were held before CE3K completed its production since Steven Spielberg was continually revising his vision of the film.

The scene where Jillian grabs Roy’s hand while he is hanging onto the side of the mountain right before they see the landing site resembles that of Cary Grant’s hanging on Mount Rushmore before he is helped up in the film North by Northwest (1959). Also, Mount Rushmore is only about 90 miles away from the Devil’s Tower.

The 2007 30th Anniversary Ultimate Edition is the first release of the original theatrical cut since the Criterion laserdisc released in 1991.

Marvel Comics published an adaptation of the movie as part of their Super Special series. However, artists were given very little visual references to work with and were unable to obtain likeness rights for the movie’s cast members.

Roy’s son Toby was played by Justin Dreyfuss, the real-life nephew of Richard Dreyfuss.

Famed ufologist J. Allen Hynek – who coined the phrase “Close Encounters of the Third Kind” – actually has a cameo in this movie. He can be seen as the gray-haired man with glasses, a pointed beard, and a pipe walking out to see the returnees in the final sequence.

Beyond having to manage the myriad of complex technical and artistic details involved, Steven Spielberg would find he also had to spend a lot of time and energy battling the studio for more and more money, a task he wasn’t prepared for and didn’t like. At one point later in production, the studio refused to shell out several thousand dollars for the effect of the Devil’s Tower control room glass shattering and Spielberg used his own money for it.

Because the complicated and extensive visual effects were stretching the limits of what had been done before, Steven Spielberg also discovered a difficult new challenge in having to shoot scenes without an exact idea of how they would look when Douglas Trumbull completed them and added them to the film in post-production, months after principal photography was finished. On Jaws, the effects were difficult, but they were mechanical and physical, right there before him every day. The unknown of working around optical effects to be added later meant a tenser on-set atmosphere. Trumbull said, “I’ll never be able to thank him enough for having the confidence and the patience to see it through time and not panic. There was enormous pressure on the production all the time from the studio to keep moving on.”

The actors had to spend a lot of time acting to objects and things that weren’t there and being told by Steven Spielberg what they were looking at and how to react. “For weeks we were just sitting on a rock, shifting positions, pretending to look at the landing site and the sky,” Melinda Dillon said. “It was a great acting exercise.” François Truffaut, however, found it very difficult, finally giving himself over to be nothing more than another object in the “grand cartoon strip” of 2,000 storyboard sketches Spielberg had shown him. When Richard Dreyfuss saw the final picture, he was upset with several moments of his performance, believing he would have reacted quite differently if he had seen the actual effects.

Steven Spielberg ran a few tests of computer-generated imagery (CGI) now the industry standard but then in its very first stages of development. He decided none of it looked believable.

Posted by brizzle born and bred on 2015-09-28 08:07:41

Tagged: 1977 Close Encounters of the Third Kind Film Locations, movie-poster, UFO, Steven-Spielberg

Arrival review Amy Adams has a sublime word with alien visitors

 

Denis Villeneuve’s thrilling sci-fi epic, in which a linguistics expert is called on to speak for the human race, is daring, clever and touched with skin-crawling strangeness

Arthur C Clarke famously said there are just two possibilities: that we are alone in the universe, or we aren’t, and both are equally terrifying. The first terror is harder to put on film, but director Denis Villeneuve brings the second to life with this freaky and audacious contact sci-fi and makes it something other than terror. Screenwriter Eric Heisserer has adapted the novella Story of Your Life by the SF author Ted Chiang; he brings to it a Shyamalanesque lilt and cleverly finesses the inevitable problem of how to end this kind of story: whether there is going to be any kind of departure. The movie skirts the edge of absurdity as anything like this must, but a forthright star performance from Amy Adams convinces you that something that could be silly is actually fascinating and deeply scary. This is a close encounter of the engrossing kind: smarter and more dreamily exalting than recent, disappointing movies such as Jeff Nichols Midnight Special and Christopher Nolans Interstellar.

As is now expected with this kind of film, the protagonist is a flustered, bewildered civilian expert, brusquely pressed into service by the military, which has got the spacecraft surrounded in the short term. Adams plays Dr. Louise Banks, a world-renowned professor of comparative linguistics with nothing in her life but her work. A bunch of army guys led by Colonel Weber (Forest Whitaker) show up on Louise’s doorstep, demanding she come with them to help translate the apparently linguistic sounds coming from the aliens who have just landed. Why, you ask, did they not approach Noam Chomsky, with his understanding of deep structure in language? Perhaps Prof Chomsky did not care to help America’s military-intelligence complex.

At any rate, Louise’s liaison is the flirtatious Ian Donnelly (Jeremy Renner), a military scientist who, in a stereotypical and fallacious way, equates his masculinity with science. Unknown to anyone, there is a secret tragedy in Louise’s life: a lost child died of cancer in her late teens. Her attempts to communicate with the aliens cause painful, illuminating echoes in her consciousness.

If a lion could speak, said Wittgenstein, we would not understand him. Does the same go for aliens? Spielberg solved this issue elegantly in Close Encounters by making the form of communication a five-note musical phrase, ending questioningly on the dominant. Villeneuve’s solution is more literal. The aliens have a code that a bit ridiculously Louise finds herself more or less able to crack. It is her human intuition, vulnerability, and spontaneity that finally enables her to reach out to the visitors.

Villeneuve very effectively creates the pre-contact ambient panic in society, when news of the alien’s arrival gets out. Dr. Banks walks into the faculty car park where someone backing out just bashes into someone else. A low-level smash in the cinematic scheme of things, but convincing in its suppressed panic and abandonment of politeness. Do these visitors come in peace or not? The movie cites the result of indigenous Australians being visited by Captain Cook and the white Europeans in the 18th century. Tactfully, it does not mention the more obvious issues of Africans or Native Americans.

Read more: www.theguardian.com/us

The post Arrival review Amy Adams has a sublime word with alien visitors appeared first on AlienVirals.com – Latest Alien & UFO News.

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Posted by alienvirals on 2017-07-04 21:21:18

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Conspiracy theories on Mars regarding proof of aliens and human colonization in 2030

Samantha Jade performs at Bondi Beach

Will humans be able to build colonies on Mars by 2030 or will be ruled by the aliens like it has been for the past few decades? It is a question that we have been concerned about. Since humans first landed on the moon their mission has been to find life or a way to live on the other planets and Mars has been the topmost choice. In the quest to find a way to colonize Mars many conspiracy theories have been developed and here we have listed a few of them.

The face on mars

It is the oldest and the most famous conspiracy theory on Mars that you will find. In 1970, when two spacecraft Viking 1 and Viking 2 were sent to Mars on a special mission they clicked many photos of its surface and other hills that they came across. They sent the photos back to NASA.

We all know that these photos cannot be complete without a conspiracy theory and this is what happened. There was a theorist name Hoagland. When he had the chance to view the pictures he simply said that there is a face on the land of Mars. The specialists claimed that it appears to be the shape of the face when in reality it is the only land of Mars.

However, Hoagland was not ready to accept the fact and he even said that NASA is hiding something from the public. Soon it was proved that it is only the illusion of the face. T is in human nature to find out different shapes in the images that we get but when it comes to space we have always been interested in finding something unique known as aliens. So we think that Hoagland was ready to declare the face as an Alien because what can be a better way to prove it when you have some photos.

Kidnapped children and the Sex slaves

One of the most interesting conspiracy theories about Mars and NASA is related to the children. Recently, in a talk show known as Infowars, the host claimed that NASA has been traffic children in the outer space. It does sound surprising when they do not have any proof of the claims that they are making.

We all know that NASA has been working on billion dollars space projects and they are looking for ways to find life on earth. In this situation how they can have extra time to traffic children from the earth that can be used as slaves.

You will be amazed to know that the host even said that many children are sent to outer space every year and all of them are kidnapped. These children are used for their organs, blood and other parts of the body by the aliens. When NASA has yet to find life in the space how can it be claimed that they have been able to sell human children to aliens?

You might consider it crazy, but the theorist said that children are sent to different planets and when they reach Mars, they are used as slaves. There are many astronauts that use them for sex. However, in a reality where there is no gravity how can someone think about harassing children when their own life is in danger.

He said that when the children are sent to outer space they are often divided into groups. Every group is sent on different planets or sometimes the children have to travel on different planets and wait for their chance to reach in different areas. On every planet, they will have to accomplish different jobs related to slavery and once they reach Mars it is the end and the last plant. Here they are once again used as slaves but only for sex by the aliens and might be humans. The theorist said that the ratio of human children kidnapping has increased over the past few years only because NASA is paying for it because they need the children to fulfill some of their ill desires.

The news widely spread over the internet and people started to ask for proof because of how they can be b believe in such kind of news. The funny part is that a video was released in which slave children were shown working on the lands of Mars and they all had the face of the aliens instead of the human beings.

There are many individuals that believed the theorist and stated that NASA should stop this. In order to stop the false news, the specialists at NASA had to take out time from their busy schedule so that they can let the world know how they have been working on the Mars mission and there is be no children used as slaves or sex puppets on Mars.

Conspiracy theories are good but if we humans are really planning to live on Mars it is important that we stop wasting the time of those that are working on this amazing project. It would take time but we have to support NASA to assure that they will find a way to live on the Red Planet that everyone thinks is impossible.

We all know that humans have the capabilities to turn anything impossible into possible. However, it should not be related to giving such conspiracy theories that have no proof only to waste the time of others.

The unknown unraveled
Squirrel on mars or where they rock

The only evidence that we get from Mars is the photos that are either taken by NASA specialists or the satellites. In 2012 another conspiracy theory began regarding the presence of squirrels on the Red Planet.

It has been claimed that it was for a secret mission of NASA and they did not let the public know because of the animal rights violation and they might have to deal with some serious issues

When the pictures were revealed for the public to see many of the conspiracy theorists said that it is of an animal especially squirrel and because it has the same color and the body structure

There were a few people who said that it is confusing to say whether it is a squirrel or a stone because there is some huge resemblance and it is hard for them to decide on one thing.

It shows that human imaginations can go as far as they can think. If it comes to our brains we can make anyone believe that rock in the image is an animal. There have been a few cases where people claimed that they have seen lizards on the planet. Now what sounds crazy is that if lizard and squirrels can live on Mars by humans need oxygen masks for only a few hours expeditions. Let us know your reviews in the comments below.

There are no Nasa rovers on Mars

One of the most interesting conspiracy theories that have been developed yet is regarding the Rovers on Mars. You will be surprised to know where human imaginations can take us. There are a few theorists that have claimed that NASA is faking everything when it comes to sending rovers on Mars.

They said that there are no rovers on the Red Planet and these are only some images of the lands of Mars that have been taken by the satellites and other space crafts. Now the question that arises here is that how they have been able to explain the land of Mars exactly. There was a time when there were no satellites and NASA has given us images from that time as well. So what I would like to say here is that we should not doubt the organization that has been working hard for our plants and humans.

Mars is equal in size to the full moon

The offender for this trick was an unsigned email encouraging individuals how to watch Mars, the planet’s the truly close way to deal with Earth in August 2003, said the famous skywatching writer Joe Rao. People evidently missed the line saying that it would take a 75 control amplification in a telescope to influence Mars to show up as large as the full moon

Lady on Mars

NASA’s specialists in 2007 caught a photograph of what had all the earmarks of being a human figure and they claim it to be a lady. The puzzling photograph lit up a few Internet gatherings as clients had any expectations of affirming life on another planet. However, space experts immediately brought up that the human shape is only a stone that is just a couple of inches high, yet situated near the camera. In addition, people can’t inhale on Mars. Let us know Why Do We Believe in Mars Hoaxes?

Iguana on Mars

The connivance destinations detailed an animal seen in a photograph caught by the Curiosity meanderer in 2013 and said that it is an iguana. In any case, as authorities called attention to at the time, the iguana, rodent and different creatures are seen in photographs from the Red Planet still can’t seem to be appeared to be anything besides strangely molded rocks.

Rodent on Mars or the stones once again

UFO crafts focused on a bit of all photograph taken by NASA’s in 2012. These watchers recognized a question that resembled a rodent lying between two rocks. While it’s an innovative thought, the “Mars rodent” is far-fetched, researchers have said. The Red Planet has to a great degree icy temperature, is prepared in radiation and does not have a thick, defensive climate like Earth’s, making it a to a great degree unfriendly condition forever.

Organics on Mars

In view of a quote from the central researcher, bits of gossip caught attention in 2012 that astronauts discovered complex natural mixes organics containing carbon, which can be a building piece of life. In any case, it worked out that the wanderer’s natural discoveries were not mind-boggling natural mixes, and it was indistinct to researchers if the carbon in them had started on Earth and were conveyed to the Red Planet, or on the off chance that they were genuinely Martian. Strikingly enough, confirmation of more-complex types of organics was in truth found, in 2014.

Life on Mars till 2030

The biggest conspiracy theory regarding the Red Plant is life on it. Analysts of Project Montauk and Pegasus Project, guarantee that Mars has a breathable surface, however not so much oxygen level similar on Earth. MARS oxygen is shaped from its lithosphere said Andrew Basiago. In a report issued in 2016, manganese was found on Mars which drove specialists to find rocks loaded with manganese oxides in the locale of Caribou. For manganese to exist, the privilege of natural conditions must be essential, which focuses on oxygen. After specific procedures, the Oxygen would be discharged into the air keeping in mind the end goal to create the manganese.

NASA scientists detailed having identified nuclear oxygen in Mars’ atmosphere in 2016, with the Stratospheric Observatory. Nuclear oxygen in the Martian environment is famously hard to quantify. To watch the far-infrared wavelengths expected to recognize nuclear oxygen, analysts must be over the dominant part of Earth’s climate and utilize very delicate instruments, for this situation a spectrometer. The Earth’s skies are thick and damp, making it to a great degree hard to precisely observe the Universe lying past it

Researchers trust Mars may have once held been a livable world. Undoubtedly there is proof to propose that life, or in any event, water existed. In the 1800s the hypothesis that life still existed rose. William Whewell trusted he spotted Canals on Mars. However, the conviction was, generally, suppressed by William Wallace Campbell in 1894 when he appeared there was neither water or oxygen display.

Make sure to share your views regarding the NASA conspiracy theories with us. Let us know what do think about life on Mars and is it possible that humans will colonize the lands of Mars in 2030.

The post Conspiracy theories on Mars regarding proof of aliens and human colonization in 2030 appeared first on exclusivenewsnow.com.

Posted by exclusivegoodnews on 2017-11-18 15:34:29

Tagged: Conspiracies, General, news, Science, Technology, aliens, beliefs, earth, mars, NASA, planets, theories

Samantha Jade performs at Bondi Beach

Samantha Jade performs at Bondi Beach

Samantha Jade: X-Factor 2012 sensation warms up Bondi Beach, Sydney crowd…

It was another beautiful day at Bondi Beach, with today’s activities including Samantha Jade performing live to a crowd of hundreds.

Many beachgoers had come to pick up some free ChapStick goodies, as well as to soak up the sun, while the surf was small but able to be caught by experienced surfers and bodysurfers.

The first female winner of the X Factor Australia was very happy to be over from Perth and commented on how nice Bondi Beach was.

Ms. Jade sounded and looked great was as she performed UFO, Breakeven, Wide Awake, and Free Fallin’, as well as recordings of her standout performance and number #1 iTunes song, Heartless and her winning single, What You’ve Done To Me.

The talented performer told Music News Australia she is enjoying touring and knows that her loyal fans are always looking forward to her latest releases.

Chapstick Australia promotions stuff encouraged onlookers to “like” the Chapstick Australia Facebook page, and in return got Chapstick goodies such as blow-ups and the Chapstick – stick, of course.

Well done on everyone involved in today’s success, and bring on more top weather and entertainment like Bondi Beach enjoyed today.

Samantha Jade official website
www.samanthajadeofficial.com

Samantha Jade YouTube
Samantha Jade – What You’ve Done To Me (Official Video)
www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=_DH1_…

ChapStick Australia
www.chapstick.com.au

Chapstick Australia Facebook
www.facebook.com/ChapStickAustralia

Posted by Music News Australia on 2013-02-09 04:42:12

Tagged, Samantha Jade, Bondi Beach, Chapstick